Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid.


  • Esperanza Prieto-Manrique Universidad de Sucre. Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias.
  • Liliana Mahecha-Ledesma Universidad de Antioquia. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Animales -GRICA.
  • Joaquín Angulo-Arizala Universidad de Antioquia. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, Grupo de Investigación en Ciencias Animales -GRICA.
  • Julio Ernesto Vargas-Sánchez Universidad de Caldas. Facultad de Ciencias Agropecuarias.




unsatured fatty acids, rumen biohydrogenation, mammary gland.


The aim of this study was to review the effect of the lipid supplementation on the concentration of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA-c9t11) or rumenic acid and other unsaturated fatty acids in bovine milk. The study addressed the concept and origin of the CLA-c9t11 in ruminants. There is an international trend to improve nutrition quality , which implies an increase in consumption of animal protein, including the healthy and rich in CLA-c9t11 dairy products. CLA-c9t11 has proved to have anticancer effects in animal models. CLA-c9t11 in the bovine milk results from the consumption of unsaturated fatty acids and from the extent of rumen biohydrogenation. Supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids of vegetable origin allows to increase the concentration of CLA-c9t11 and to decrease the proportion of saturated fatty acids in milk, but the response varies depending on the source of fat used, its level, and its interaction with basal diet.


Download data is not yet available.


AbuGhazaleh, A.A., and T.C. Jenkins. 2004. Disappearance of docosahexaenoic and eicosapentaenoic acids from cultures of mixed ruminal microorganisms. J. Dairy Sci. 87:645-651.

AbuGhazaleh, A.A., and T.C. Jenkins. 2008. Effect of fish oil and sunflower oil supplementation on milk conjugated linoleic acid content for grazing dairy cows. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 141:220-232.

AbuGhazaleh, A.A., D.J. Schingoethe, A.R. Hippen, and K.F. Kalscheur. 2003. Milk conjugated linoleic acid response to fish oil supplementation of diets differing in fatty acid profiles. J. Dairy Sci. 86:944-953.

AbuGhazaleh, A.A., D.J. Schingoethe, A.R. Hippen, and K.F. Kalscheur. 2004. Conjugated linoleic acid increases in milk when cows fed fish meal and extruded soybeans for an extended period of time. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1758-1766.

Angulo, J., B. Hiller, M. Olivera, L. Mahecha, D. Dannenberger, G. Nuernberg, B. Losand, and K. Nuernberg. 2012a. Dietary fatty acid intervention of lactating cows simultaneously affects lipid profiles of meat and milk. J. Sci. Food Agric. 92:2968-2974.

Angulo, J., L. Mahecha, K. Nuernberg, G. Nuernberg, D. Dannenberger, M. Olivera, M. Boutinaud, C. Leroux, E. Albrecht, and L. Bernard. 2012b. Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acids from plant oils and algae on milk fat yield and composition are associated with mammary lipogenic and SREBF1 gene expression. Animal 6:1961-1972.

Aprianita, A., O.N. Donkor, P.J. Moate, S.R.O. Williams, M.J. Auldist, J.S. Greenwood, M.C. Hannah, W.J. Wales, and T. Vasiljevic. 2014. Effects of dietary cottonseed oil and tannin supplements on protein and fatty acid composition of bovine milk. J. Dairy Res. 81:183-92.

Atkinson, R.L., E.J. Scholljegerdes, S.L. Lake, V. Nayigihugu, B.W. Hess, and D.C. Rule. 2006. Site and extent of digestion, duodenal flow, and intestinal disappearance of total and esterified fatty acids in sheep fed a high-concentrate diet supplemented with high-linoleate safflower oil. J. Anim. Sci. 84:387-396.

Baer, R., J. Ryali, D. Schingoethe, K. Kasperson, D. Donovan, A. Hippen, and S. Franklin. 2001. Composition and properties of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil. J. Dairy Sci. 84:345-353.

Barber, M.C., R.A. Clegg, M.T. Travers, and R.G. Vernon. 1997. Lipid metabolism in the lactating mammary gland. Biochim. Biophys. Acta - Lipids Lipid Metab. 1347:101-126.

Bauman, D.E., L.H. Baumgard, B.A. Corl, and J.M. Griinari. 1999. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid in ruminants. Proc. Am. Soc. Anim. Sci. 77:1-15.

Bauman, D., B. Corl, and D. Paterson. 2003a. The biology of conjugated linoleic acids in ruminants. In: J.L. Sébédio, et al., editors, Advances in conjugated linoleic acids research. AOCS press, Champain, IL, USA. p. 146-173.

Bauman, D., and J. Griinari. 2001. Regulation and nutritional manipulation of milk fat: low-fat milk syndrome. Livest. Prod. Sci. 70:15-29.

Bauman, D.E., and A.L. Lock. 2006. Conjugated linoleic acid: Biosynthesis and nutricional significance. In: P.F. Fox, and P.L.H. McSweeney, editors, Advanced dairy chemistry. Vol. 2: Lipids. 3rd ed. Springer US, NY, USA. p. 93-136.

Bauman, D., J. Perfield II, M. de Veth, and A. Lock. 2003b. New perspectives on lipid digestion and metabolism in ruminants. In Cornell University, editor, Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf. Cornell University, NY, USA. p. 175-189.

Beam, T.M., T.C. Jenkins, P.J. Moate, R.A. Kohn, and D.L. Palmquist. 2000. Effects of amount and source of fat on the rates of lipolysis and biohydrogenation of fatty acids in ruminal contents. J. Dairy Sci. 83:2564-2573.

Belury, M.A. 2002. Dietary conjugated linoleic acid in health: physiological effects and mechanisms of action. Annu. Rev. Nutr. 22:505-531.

Bernal-Santos, G., J.W. Perfield, D.M. Barbano, D.E. Bauman, and T.R. Overton. 2003. Production responses of dairy cows to dietary supplementation with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) during the transition period and early lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 86:3218-3228.

Bichi, E., P.G. Toral, G. Hervas, P. Frutos, P. Gomez-Cortes, M. Juarez, and M.A. De la Fuente. 2012. Inhibition of Δ9-desaturase activity with sterculic acid: effect on the endogenous synthesis of cis-9 18:1 and cis-9, trans-11 18:2 in dairy sheep. J. Dairy Sci. 95:5242-5252.

Boerman, J.P., and A.L. Lock. 2014. Effect of unsaturated fatty acids and triglycerides from soybeans on milk fat synthesis and biohydrogenation intermediates in dairy cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 97:7031-7042.

Buccioni, A., M. Decandia, S. Minieri, G. Molle, and A. Cabiddu. 2012. Lipid metabolism in the rumen: New insights on lipolysis and biohydrogenation with an emphasis on the role of endogenous plant factors. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 174:1-25.

Cabiddu, A., G. Molle, M. Decandia, S. Spada, M. Fiori, G. Piredda, and M. Addis. 2009. Responses to condensed tannins of flowering sulla (Hedysarum coronarium L.) grazed by dairy sheep. Livest. Sci. 123:230-240.

Cabiddu, A., L. Salis, J.K.S. Tweed, G. Molle, M. Decandia, and M.R.F. Lee. 2010. The influence of plant polyphenols on lipolysis and biohydrogenation in dried forages at different phenological stages: in vitro study. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:829-835.

Campbell, W., M. a Drake, and D.K. Larick. 2003. The impact of fortification with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on the quality of fluid milk. J. Dairy Sci. 86:43-51.

Caroprese, M., A. Sevi, R. Marino, A. Santillo, A. Tateo, and M. Albenzio. 2013. Composition and textural properties of mozzarella cheese naturally-enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids. J. Dairy Res. 80:276-282.

Castillo-Vargas, J.A. 2012. Cinética de biohidrogenación in vitro de ácidos grasos poliinsaturados en fluido ruminal. Tesis M.Sc., Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, COL.

Castro, T., T. Manso, V. Jimeno, M. Del Alamo, and A.R. Mantecón. 2009. Effects of dietary sources of vegetable fats on performance of dairy ewes and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in milk. Small Rumin. Res. 84:47-53.

Chilliard, Y., and A. Ferlay. 2004. Dietary lipids and forages interactions on cow and goat milk fatty acid composition and sensory properties. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 44:467-92.

Chilliard, Y., A. Ferlay, and M. Doreau. 2001. Effect of different types of forages, animal fat or marine oils in cow’s diet on milk fat secretion and composition, especially conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Livest. Prod. Sci. 70:31-48.

Chilliard, Y., A Ferlay, J. Rouel, and G. Lamberet. 2003. A review of nutritional and physiological factors affecting goat milk lipid synthesis and lipolysis. J. Dairy Sci. 86:1751-1770.

Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, F. Enjalbert, A. Ferlay, F. Bocquier, y P. Schmidely. 2007a. Resultados recientes sobre los efectos de la alimentación en la composición en ácidos grasos de la leche de vaca, cabra y oveja. Rev. Arg. Prod. Anim. 27:197-213.

Chilliard, Y., F. Glasser, A. Ferlay, L. Bernard, J. Rouel, and M. Doreau. 2007b. Diet, rumen biohydrogenation and nutritional quality of cow and goat milk fat. Eur. J. Lipid Sci. Technol. 109:828-855.

Chouinard, P.Y., L. Corneau, W.R. Butler, Y. Chilliard, J.K. Drackley, and D.E. Bauman. 2001. Effect of dietary lipid source on conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk fat. J. Dairy Sci. 84:680-690.

Chow, T.T., V. Fievez, A.P. Moloney, K. Raes, D. Demeyer, and S. De Smet. 2004. Effect of fish oil on in vitro rumen lipolysis, apparent biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acid and accumulation of biohydrogenation intermediates. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 117(1-2):1-12.

CNL (Consejo Nacional Lácteo). 2010. Acuerdo de competitividad de la cadena lacteal colombiana. CNL, Bogota, COL.

Collomb, M., R. Sieber, and U. Bütikofer. 2004a. CLA isomers in milk fat from cows fed diets with high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Lipids 39:355-364.

Collomb, M., H. Sollberger, U. Bütikofer, R. Sieber, W. Stoll, and W. Schaeren. 2004b. Impact of a basal diet of hay and fodder beet supplemented with rapeseed, linseed and sunflowerseed on the fatty acid composition of milk fat. Int. Dairy J. 14:549-559.

Corl, B.A., L.H. Baumgard, J.M. Griinari, P. Delmonte, K.M. Morehouse, M.P. Yurawecz, and D.E. Bauman. 2002. Trans-7, cis-9 CLA is synthesized endogenously by delta9-desaturase in dairy cows. Lipids 37:681-8.

Cruz-Hernandez, C., J.K.G. Kramer, J.J. Kennelly, D.R. Glimm, B.M. Sorensen, E.K. Okine, L. a Goonewardene, and R.J. Weselake. 2007. Evaluating the conjugated linoleic acid and trans 18:1 isomers in milk fat of dairy cows fed increasing amounts of sunflower oil and a constant level of fish oil. J. Dairy Sci. 90:3786-3801.

Dehority, B. 2003. Rumen microbiology. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, GBR.

Dhiman, T.R., L.D. Satter, M.W. Pariza, M.P. Galli, K. Albright, and M.X. Tolosa. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content of milk from cows offered diets rich in linoleic and linolenic acid. J. Dairy Sci. 83:1016-1027.

Dohme, F., V. Fievez, K. Raes, and D.I. Demeyer. 2003. Increasing levels of two different fish oils lower ruminal biohydrogenation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in vitro. Anim. Res. 52:309-320.

Ferlay, A., M. Doreau, C. Martin, and Y. Chilliard. 2013. Effects of incremental amounts of extruded linseed on the milk fatty acid composition of dairy cows receiving hay or corn silage. J. Dairy Sci. 96:6577-6595.

Ferlay, A., B. Martin, S. Lerch, M. Gobert, P. Pradel, and Y. Chilliard. 2010. Effects of supplementation of maize silage diets with extruded linseed, vitamin E and plant extracts rich in polyphenols, and morning v. evening milking on milk fatty acid profiles in Holstein and Montbéliarde cows. Anim. 4:627-640.

Fukuda, S., Y. Suzuki, M. Murai, N. Asanuma, and T. Hino. 2006. Isolation of a novel strain of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens that isomerizes linoleic acid to conjugated linoleic acid without hydrogenation, and its utilization as a probiotic for animals. J. Appl. Microbiol. 100: 787-794.

Gagliostro, G. A. 2004a. Control nutricional del contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) en leche y su presencia en alimentos naturales funcionales. 2. Producción de leche alto CLA a través de la suplementación estratégica de la vaca lechera. Rev. Arg. Prod. Anim. 24:137-163.

Gagliostro, G.A. 2004b. Control nutricional del contenido de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) en leche y su presencia en alimentos naturales funcionales. 3. Producción de leche alto CLA a través de la suplementación estratégica de cabra. Rev. Arg. Prod. Anim. 24:165-185.

Gagliostro, G.A. 2011. Obtención de lácteos funcionales naturales. En: C.A. Cangiano, y M.A. Brizuela, editores, Producción animal en pastoreo. 2da. ed. INTA, Balcarce. ARG. p. 425-445.

Gagliostro, G.A., and L.. Antonacci. 2013. Lácteos funcionales en Santa Fé caso rocío del campo: una leche única para elaboración de productos cualitativamente diferenciados con ventajas para la salud de los consumidores. Rev. Visión Rural 99:19-20.

Gagliostro, G.A., A. Rodriguez, P. Pellegrini, G. Musset, P. Gatti, R. Castañeda, D.A. Garciarena, M. Oporto, H.H. Fernández, A. Ferlay, and Y. Chilliard. 2006. Effects of sunflower oil or seeds combined or not with fish oil on conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat from grazing dairy cows. Rev. Arg. Prod. Anim. 26(Suplem I):99-100.

Gervais, R., J.W. McFadden, A.J. Lengi, B.A. Corl, and P.Y. Chouinard. 2009. Effects of intravenous infusion of trans-10, cis-12 18:2 on mammary lipid metabolism in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 92:5167-77.

Giesy, J.G., M.A. McGuire, B. Shafii, and T.W. Hanson. 2002. Effect of dose of calcium salts of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on percentage and fatty acid content of milk fat in midlactation Holstein cows. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2023-2029.

Gómez-Cortés, P. 2010. Efecto de la suplementación de la dieta ovina con distintas fuentes lipídicas sobre el perfil de ácidos grasos de la leche. Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid, ESP.

Gómez-Cortés, P., P. Frutos, a R. Mantecón, M. Juárez, M. A. de la Fuente, and G. Hervás. 2008. Milk production, conjugated linoleic acid content, and in vitro ruminal fermentation in response to high levels of soybean oil in dairy ewe diet. J. Dairy Sci. 91:1560-1569.

Hansen, H.O., and J. Knudsen. 1987. Effect of exogenous long-chain fatty acids on lipid biosynthesis in dispersed ruminant mammary gland epithelial cells: esterification of long-chain exogenous fatty acids. J. Dairy Sci. 70:1344-1349.

Harfoot, C., and G. Hazlewood. 1988. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In: P.N. Hobson, and C.S. Stewart, editors, The rumen microbial ecosystem. Elsevier Science Publishing, N.Y., USA. p. 285-322.

Harfoot, C., and G. Hazelewood. 1997. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. In: P. Hobson, and C.S. Stewart, editors, The rumen microbial ecosystem. 2nd ed. Chapman & Hall, London, GBR. p. 382-426.

Harvatine, K.J., and M.S. Allen. 2006. Fat supplements affect fractional rates of ruminal fatty acid biohydrogenation and passage in dairy cows. J. Nutr. 136:677-685.

Harvatine, K.J., and D.E. Bauman. 2006. SREBP1 and thyroid hormone responsive spot 14 (S14) are involved in the regulation of bovine mammary lipid synthesis during diet-induced milk fat depression and treatment with CLA. J. Nutr. 136:2468-2474.

Hervás, G., P. Luna, A.R. Mantecon, N. Castañares, P. Frutos, M.A. De la Fuente, and M. Juárez. 2006. Effect of sunflower oil on sheep milk production and composition, and in vitro rumen fermentation. In: Uropean Federation for the Science and Technology of Lipids, editor, 4th Euro fed lipid congress - fats, oils and lipids for a healthier future- Workshop on “Biohydrogenation. German Chemical Society (GDCh). Madrid, ESP. p. 18.

Jacob, A.B., V. Balakrishnan, and C. Kathirvelan. 2012. Effect of amount and source of vegetable oils in a high fibrous cattle diet on in vitro rumen fermentation, nutrient degradability and rumen cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentration. J. Appl. Anim. Res. 40:148-153.

Jenkins, T.C. 1993. Lipid metabolism in the rumen. J. Dairy Sci. 76:3851-3863.

Jenkins, T.C., A. a Abughazaleh, S. Freeman, and E.J. Thies. 2006. The production of 10-hydroxystearic and 10-ketostearic acids is an alternative route of oleic acid transformation by the ruminal microbiota in cattle. J. Nutr. 136:926-931.

Jenkins, T.C., R.J. Wallace, P.J. Moate, and E.E. Mosley. 2008. Board-invited review: recent advances in biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids within the rumen microbial ecosystem. J. Anim. Sci. 86:397-412.

Kelly, M.L., J.R. Berry, D.A. Dwyer, J.M. Griinari, P.Y. Chouinard, M.E. Van Amburgh, and D.E. Bauman. 1998. Dietary fatty acid sources affect conjugated linoleic acid concentrations in milk from lactating dairy cows. J. Nutr. 128:881-885.

Kepler, C.R., and S.B. Tove. 1967. Biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids: III. Purification and properties of a linoleate Δ12-cis, Δ11-trans-isomerase from Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. J. Biol. Chem. 242:5686-5692.

Khanal, R.C. 2004. Potential health benefits of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA): A review. Asian Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 17:1315-1328.

Khanal, R.C., and K.C. Olson. 2004. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in milk, meat, and egg: A review. Pakistan J. Nutr. 3:2-98.

Kolver, E.S. 1997. Supplemental feeding strategies to increase the utilization of pasture nitrogen by high producing dairy cows. Ph.D. Diss., Pennsylvania State Univ., State College, PA, USA.

Kucuk, O., B.W. Hess, P.A. Ludden, and D.C. Rule. 2001. Effect of forage:concentrate ratio on ruminal digestion and duodenal flow of fatty acids in ewes. J. Anim. Sci. 79:2233-2240.

Lee, H.G., Z.S. Hong, J.H. Wang, C.X. Xu, Y.C. Jin, T.K. Kim, Y.J. Kim, M.K. Song, and Y.J. Choi. 2009. Milk conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) profile and metabolic responses of dairy cows fed with high-temperature-micro-time (HTMT) treated diets containing high quantity extruded soybean (ESB). Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 22:1504-1512.

Lee, M.R.F., S. A. Huws, N.D. Scollan, and R.J. Dewhurst. 2007a. Effects of fatty acid oxidation products (green odor) on rumen bacterial populations and lipid metabolism in vitro. J. Dairy Sci. 90:3874-3882.

Lee, Y.J., and T.C. Jenkins. 2011. Biohydrogenation of linolenic acid to stearic acid by the rumen microbial population yields multiple intermediate conjugated diene isomers. J. Nutr. 141:1445-1450.

Lee, M.R.F., L.J. Parfitt, N.D. Scollan, and F.. Minchin. 2007b. Lipolysis in red clover with different polyphenol oxidase activities in the presence and absence of rumen fluid. J. Sci. Food Agric. 87:1308-1314.

Lee, M.R.F., M.B. Scott, J.K.S. Tweed, F.R. Minchin, and D.R. Davies. 2008. Effects of polyphenol oxidase on lipolysis and proteolysis of red clover silage with and without a silage inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum L54). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 144:125-136.

Lee, M.R.F., J.K.S. Tweed, A. Cookson, and M.L. Sullivan. 2010. Immunogold labelling to localize polyphenol oxidase (PPO) during wilting of red clover leaf tissue and the effect of removing cellular matrices on PPO protection of glycerol-based lipid in the rumen. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:503-510.

Lee, M.R.F., J.K.S. Tweed, R.J. Dewhurst, and N.D. Scollan. 2006. Effect of forage: concentrate ratio on ruminal metabolism and duodenal flow of fatty acids in beef steers. Anim. Sci. 82:2233-2240.

Lee, M.R., J. Tweed, A. Moloney, and N. Scollan. 2005. The effects of fish oil supplementation on rumen metabolism and the biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids in beef steers given diets containing sunflower oil. J. Anim. Sci. 80.

Lerch, S., A. Ferlay, K.J. Shingfield, B. Martin, D. Pomiès, and Y. Chilliard. 2012. Rapeseed or linseed supplements in grass-based diets: effects on milk fatty acid composition of Holstein cows over two consecutive lactations. J. Dairy Sci. 95:1956-1970.

Lock, A.L., and D.E. Bauman. 2004. Modifying milk fat composition of dairy cows to enhance fatty acids beneficial to human health. Lipids 39:1197-1206.

Lock, A.L., and P.C. Garnsworthy. 2002. Independent effects of dietary linoleic and linolenic fatty acids on the conjugated linoleic acid content of cows’ milk. Anim. Sci. 74:163-176.

Loor, J.J., K. Ueda, A. Ferlay, Y. Chilliard, and M. Doreau. 2004. Biohydrogenation, duodenal flow, and intestinal digestibility of trans fatty acids and conjugated linoleic acids in response to dietary forage:concentrate ratio and linseed oil in dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87: 2472–85.

Maia, M.R.G., L.C. Chaudhary, C.S. Bestwick, A.J. Richardson, N. McKain, T.R. Larson, I. A. Graham, and R.J. Wallace. 2010. Toxicity of unsaturated fatty acids to the biohydrogenating ruminal bacterium, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens. BMC Microbiol. 10:52.

Maxin, G., H. Rulquin, and F. Glasser. 2011. Response of milk fat concentration and yield to nutrient supply in dairy cows. Anim. 5:1299-1310.

McCrorie, T.A., E.M. Keaveney, J.M.W. Wallace, N. Binns, and M.B.E. Livingstone. 2011. Human health effects of conjugated linoleic acid from milk and supplements. Nutr. Res. Rev. 24:206-227.

McKain, N., K.J. Shingfield, and R.J. Wallace. 2010. Metabolism of conjugated linoleic acids and 18:1 fatty acids by ruminal bacteria: Products and mechanisms. Microbiol. 156:579-588.

Milner, J.A. 1999. Functional foods and health promotion. J. Nutr. 129:1395S-1397S.

Moon, C.D., D.M. Pacheco, W.J. Kelly, S.C. Leahy, D. Li, J. Kopecny, and G.T. Attwood. 2008. Reclassification of Clostridium proteoclasticum as Butyrivibrio proteoclasticus comb. nov., a butyrate-producing ruminal bacterium. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 58:2041-2045.

Mosley, E.E., G.L. Powell, M.B. Riley, and T.C. Jenkins. 2002. Microbial biohydrogenation of oleic acid to trans isomers in vitro. J. Lipid Res. 43:290-296.

Murphy, J.J., M. Coakley, and C. Stanton. 2008. Supplementation of dairy cows with a fish oil containing supplement and sunflower oil to increase the CLA content of milk produced at pasture. Livest. Sci. 116:332-337.

Nam, I.S., and P.C. Garnsworthy. 2007. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid by rumen fungi compared with rumen bacteria. J. Appl. Microbiol. 103:551-556.

NRC (National Research Council). 2001. Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th rev. National Academy Press, WA, DC, USA.

Or-Rashid, M.M., O. Alzahal, and B.W. McBride. 2011. Comparative studies on the metabolism of linoleic acid by rumen bacteria, protozoa, and their mixture in vitro. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 89:387-395.

Owens, F.N., D.S. Secrist, W.J. Hill, and D.R. Gill. 1998. Acidosis in cattle: A review. J. Anim. Sci. 76:275-286.

Palmquist, D.L., A.L. Lock, K.J. Shingfield, and D.E. Bauman. 2005. Biosynthesis of conjugated linoleic acid in ruminants and humans. Adv. Food Nutr. Res. 50:179-217.

Pariza, M.W. 2004. Perspective on the safety and effectiveness of conjugated linoleic acid. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 79:1132-1136.

Parodi, P.W. 2003. Conjugated linoleic acid in food. In: J. Sébédio, et al., editors, Advances in conjugated linoleic acid in food. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, USA. p. 101-122.

Perfield, J.W., G. Bernal-Santos, T.R. Overton, and D.E. Bauman. 2002. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected conjugated linoleic acid in dairy cows during established lactation. J. Dairy Sci. 85:2609-2617.

Piperova, L.S., J. Sampugna, B.B. Teter, K.F. Kalscheur, M.P. Yurawecz, Y. Ku, K.M. Morehouse, and R. A. Erdman. 2002. Duodenal and milk trans octadecenoic acid and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers indicate that postabsorptive synthesis is the predominant source of cis-9-containing CLA in lactating dairy cows. J. Nutr. 132:1235-1241.

Prandini, A., S. Sigolo, and G. Piva. 2009. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and fatty acid composition of milk, curd and Grana Padano cheese in conventional and organic farming systems. J. Dairy Res. 76:278-282.

Ramaswamy, N., R.J. Baer, D.J. Schingoethe, A.R. Hippen, K.M. Kasperson, and L.A. Whitlock. 2001. Composition and flavor of milk and butter from cows fed fish oil, extruded soybeans, or their combination. J. Dairy Sci. 84:2144-2151.

Rego, O.A., S.P. Alves, L.M.S. Antunes, H.J.D. Rosa, C.F.M. Alfaia, J.A.M. Prates, A.R.J. Cabrita, A.J.M. Fonseca, and R.J.B. Bessa. 2009. Rumen biohydrogenation-derived fatty acids in milk fat from grazing dairy cows supplemented with rapeseed, sunflower, or linseed oils. J. Dairy Sci. 92:4530-4540.

Renna, M., M. Collomb, A. Münger, and U. Wyss. 2010. Influence of low-level supplementation of grazing dairy cows with cereals or sugar beet pulp on the concentrations of CLA isomers in milk. J. Sci. Food Agric. 90:1256-1267.

Saliba, L., R. Gervais, Y. Lebeuf, and P.Y. Chouinard. 2014. Effect of feeding linseed oil in diets differing in forage to concentrate ratio: 1. Production performance and milk fat content of biohydrogenation intermediates of α-linolenic acid. J. Dairy Res. 81:82-90.

Salter, A.M. 2013. Dietary fatty acids and cardiovascular disease. Anim. 7:163-171.

Sauvant, D., et P. Bas. 2001. La digestion des lipides chez le ruminant. Prod. Anim. 14:303-310.

Sauvant, D., F. Meschy, et D. Mertens. 1999. Les composantes de l’acidose ruminale et les effets acidogènes des rations. Prod. Anim. 12:49-60.

Secchiari, P., M. Antongiovanni, M. Mele, A. Serra, A. Buccioni, G. Ferruzzi, F. Paoletti, and F. Petacchi. 2003. Effect of kind of dietary fat on the quality of milk fat from Italian Friesian cows. Livest. Prod. Sci. 83:43-52.

Shingfield, K.J., S. Ahvenjärvi, V. Toivonen, A. Ärölä, K.V.V. Nurmela, and P. Huhtanen. 2003. Effect of dietary fish oil on biohydrogenation of fatty acids and milk fatty acid content in cows. Anim. Sci. 77:165-179.

Shingfield, K.J., L. Bernard, C. Leroux, and Y. Chilliard. 2010. Role of trans fatty acids in the nutritional regulation of mammary lipogenesis in ruminants. Anim. 4:1140-1166.

Shingfield, K.J., M. Bonnet, and N.D. Scollan. 2013. Recent developments in altering the fatty acid composition of ruminant-derived foods. Animal 7:132-162.

Shingfield, K.J., Y. Chilliard, V. Toivonen, P. Kairenius, and D.I. Givens. 2008. Trans fatty acids and bioactive lipids in ruminant milk. Adv. Exp. Med. Biol. 606:3-65.

Shingfield, K.J., C.K. Reynolds, G. Hervás, J.M. Griinari, A.S. Grandison, and D.E. Beever. 2006. Examination of the persistency of milk fatty acid composition responses to fish oil and sunflower oil in the diet of dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 89:714-732.

Slyter, L.L. 1986. Ability of pH-selected mixed ruminal microbial populations to digest fiber at various pHs. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 52:390-391.

Stanton, C., J. Murphy, E. McGrath, R. Devery, J.L. Sébédio, W.W. Christie, and R. Adlof. 2003. Animal feeding strategies for conjugated linoleic acid enrichment of milk. In: J.L. Sébédio, et al., editors, Advances in conjugated linoleic acid research. AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, USA. p. 123-145.

Sterk, A., B.E.O. Johansson, H.Z.H. Taweel, M. Murphy, A.M. Van Vuuren, W.H. Hendriks, and J. Dijkstra. 2011. Effects of forage type, forage to concentrate ratio, and crushed linseed supplementation on milk fatty acid profile in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 94:6078-6091.

Stoffel, C.M., P.M. Crump, and L.E. Armentano. 2015. Effect of dietary fatty acid supplements, varying in fatty acid composition, on milk fat secretion in dairy cattle fed diets supplemented to less than 3% total fatty acids. J. Dairy Sci. 98:431-442.

Troegeler-Meynadier, A., L. Bret-Bennis, and F. Enjalbert. 2006. Rates and efficiencies of reactions of ruminal biohydrogenation of linoleic acid according to pH and polyunsaturated fatty acids concentrations. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 46:713-724.

Van Nevel, C.J., and D.I. Demeyer. 1996. Influence of pH on lipolysis and biohydrogenation of soybean oil by rumen contents in vitro. Reprod. Nutr. Dev. 36:53-63.

Vargas-Bello-Pérez, E., K. Fehrmann-Cartes, G. Íñiguez-González, P. Toro-Mujica, and P.C. Garnsworthy. 2015. Chemical composition, fatty acid composition, and sensory characteristics of Chanco cheese from dairy cows supplemented with soybean and hydrogenated vegetable oils. J. Dairy Sci. 98:111-117.

Vasta, V., H.P.S. Makkar, M. Mele, and A. Priolo. 2009a. Ruminal biohydrogenation as affected by tannins in vitro. Br. J. Nutr. 102:82-92.

Vasta, V., M. Mele, A. Serra, M. Scerra, G. Luciano, M. Lanza, and A. Priolo. 2009b. Metabolic fate of fatty acids involved in ruminal biohydrogenation in sheep fed concentrate or herbage with or without tannins. J. Anim. Sci. 87:2674-2684.

Wallace, R.J., L.C. Chaudhary, N. McKain, N.R. McEwan, A.J. Richardson, P.E. Vercoe, N.D. Walker, and D. Paillard. 2006. Clostridium proteoclasticum: A ruminal bacterium that forms stearic acid from linoleic acid. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 265:195-201.

Wallace, R.J., N. McKain, K.J. Shingfield, and E. Devillard. 2007. Isomers of conjugated linoleic acids are synthesized via different mechanisms in ruminal digesta and bacteria. J. Lipid Res. 48:2247-2254. doi:10.1194/jlr.M700271-JLR200

Weiss, M.F., F.A. Martz, and C.L. Lorenzen. 2004a. Conjugated linoleic acid: historical context and implications. Prof. Anim. Sci. 20:118-126.

Weiss, M.F., F.A. Martz, and C.L. Lorenzen. 2004b.Conjugated linoleic acid: Implicated mechanisms related to cancer, atherosclerosis, and obesity. Prof. Anim. Sci. 20:127-135.



How to Cite

Prieto-Manrique, E., Mahecha-Ledesma, L., Angulo-Arizala, J., & Vargas-Sánchez, J. E. (2016). Effect of lipid supplementation on milk fatty acid focus on rumenic acid. Agronomía Mesoamericana, 27(2), 421–437. https://doi.org/10.15517/am.v27i2.22022

Most read articles by the same author(s)

1 2 > >>