Agronomía Mesoamericana 2023-01-16T08:02:59-06:00 Nancy León Ulate Open Journal Systems <p>Agronomía Mesoamericana journal is a continued publication with shutdowns in January, May and September. Edited in the Universidad de Costa Rica, its objective is to disseminate original scientific information in Spanish or English language, through the publication of articles, short communications, technical notes and literature reviews, related with food and agriculture sciences from anywhere in the world, emphasized in tropical and subtropical zones, especially from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean. </p> <p>Agronomía Mesoamericana implements interoperability protocols that allow the journal to be harvested by other content distribution systems. It supports this process through the OAI-PMH protocol (Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting) that allows the transfer of scientific and open access digital resources. <strong>URL OAI-PMH</strong></p> <p> </p> 50th anniversary of the Center for Research in Grains and Seeds (CIGRAS): History and contributions in research, teaching, and social work 2022-09-16T00:50:07-06:00 María Viñas Víctor M. Jiménez Luis Barboza-Barquero 2022-09-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 María Viñas, Víctor M. Jiménez, Luis Barboza-Barquero Bacterial coinfections on foliar blight and bulb rot in onion (Allium cepa L.) 2022-10-03T11:10:38-06:00 Juan Carlos Jiménez-Acero Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia Adriana González-Almario <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Introduction</span>.</strong> The onion bulb (<em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Allium cepa</span></em> L.) is a cultivated vegetable characterized by its fleshy scales susceptible to phytopathogen attacks causing economic losses. The symptoms of foliar wilting, blighting, and rot of bulb can be caused by different genera and bacterial species that can co-infect the host, making it difficult to identify the causal agent. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Objective.</span> </strong>To evaluate the effect of bacterial co-infections on foliar wilt and bulb rot in onion. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Materials and methods. </span></strong>The bacteria were isolated from onion plants with symptoms of leaf blight and bulb rot, from crops located in Choachí Cundinamarca, Colombia, collected in June 2018. Bacterial isolates were purified, identified, and inoculated individually and in a mixture on healthy onion leaves and bulbs. Six treatments per organ were evaluated: three with individual infections and three with co-infection. The lesion progress was measured in both organs for twelve days after inoculation.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Results.</span></strong> Two bacterial species identified as <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Pantoea ananatis</span></em> and <span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><em>Rahnella aquatilis</em> </span>were obtained from the foliar and bulb symptoms. In individual infections, the <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">P. ananatis</span></em> strain presented the highest virulence causing 34.29 % bulb damage, and 100 % leaf damage, while the<em> <span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">R. aquatilis</span></em> generated the lowest percentage of rotting in the bulb (8.87 %) and it did not produce wilt. In co-infections, the combination of <span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><em>P. ananatis</em> </span>and <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">R. aquatilis</span></em> produced the lowest percentages of bulb (15 %) and leaf (10 %) damage, associated with a decrease in the symptom’s expression. <span class="CharOverride-2" lang=""><strong>Conclusion.</strong> </span><em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">R. aquatilis</span> </em>acted as an antagonistic organism of <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">P. ananatis</span></em> and causes a delay in the development of foliar wilt and bulb rot symptoms in onion.</p> 2023-02-21T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Juan Carlos Jiménez-Acero, Rosa Raybaudi-Massilia, Adriana González-Almario olletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in orange (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osb.) and its in vitro control with fungicides 2022-08-29T15:05:44-06:00 María José Guillén-Carvajal Gerardina Umaña-Rojas Ingrid Varela-Benavides <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Introduction</span>.</strong> Orange (<em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Citrus sinensis</span></em> (L.) Osb.) cultivation is one of the most important worldwide. Among the main limitations in its production is the fall of flowers caused by <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Colletotrichum</span></em>. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the species of <span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><em>Colletotrichum</em> </span>associated with anthracnose in orange and to estimate the <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">in vitro</span> </em>effectiveness of four fungicides on its control. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Materials and methods. </span></strong>This study was carried out between June 2021 and February 2022. Six fungal isolates, obtained from orange floral tissues, were identified via polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The efficacy of the fungicides tebuconazole, pyraclostrobin, difenoconazole, and ferbam on two <span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><em>Colletotrichum</em> </span>isolates was evaluated. Two tests were carried out to determine the degree of inhibition of mycelial growth and the percentage of effectiveness of each fungicide.<strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang=""> Results.</span></strong> <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Colletotrichum abscissum</span></em> was identified on petals with symptoms and <span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><em>Colletotrichum gloeosporioides</em> </span>on calyxes. The effectiveness of the doses used of the fungicides tebuconazole and difenoconazole was verified by presenting inhibition of mycelial growth from a tenth of the commercial dose evaluated. Pyraclostrobin showed little control over both isolates. Ferbam did not present an efficient control in any of the doses evaluated in both strains. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Conclusion. </span></strong>The fungi associated with anthracnose in orange, on the farm studied, were <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">C. abscissum</span></em>, present on petals with initial and advanced symptoms, and <span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><em>C. gloeosporioides</em> </span>present on persistent calyxes. The effectiveness of the fungicides evaluated was higher for triazoles, tebuconazole, and difenoconazole, in that order. Pyraclostrobin showed a poor control on both isolates. Ferbam was not effective in<em> <span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">in vitro</span></em> tests.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 María José Guillén-Carvajal, Gerardina Umaña-Rojas, Ingrid Varela-Benavides Detection of Duponchelia fovealis Zeller with pheromones in strawberry farms of Costa Rica 2022-08-19T10:19:52-06:00 Francisco Gonzalez-Fuentes Carlos Rodríguez-Chinchilla Abelardo Jesús Arroyo-Vargas Allan González-Herrera <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Introduction</span>. </strong><em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">Duponchelia fovealis</span> </em>Z. is a pest of production crops in Europe and in the United States. It has recently been detected in strawberry production in Brazil, Mexico, and in a farm in the Vásquez de Coronado canton, San José, Costa Rica. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Objective. </span></strong>To determine the presence and distribution of<span class="CharOverride-6" lang=""> <em>Duponchelia fovealis </em></span>Z. in strawberry farms in Costa Rica. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>During the dry seasons of 2020-2021 and 2021- 2022, traps baited with the <em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">D. fovealis</span></em> pheromone were placed in the initially reported farm in Vásquez de Coronado and in six other farms located in the main strawberry regions of Costa Rica: La Cima of Dota, Llano Grande, Poás, and Vara Blanca.<strong> </strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""><strong>Results.</strong> </span>The monitoring showed that the highest populations were established in the Vásquez de Coronado farm, while occasional captures were obtained in farms such as La Cima of Dota in San José and two in Llano Grande in Cartago. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Conclusions. </span></strong>The presence of <em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">D. fovealis</span></em> Z. in Costa Rica was determined, with limited distribution. Given this, an analysis of the risk of the pest and the implementation of measures to reduce the insect’s dispersal are suggested.</p> 2023-02-13T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Francisco Gonzalez-Fuentes, Carlos Rodríguez-Chinchilla, Abelardo Jesús Arroyo-Vargas, Allan González-Herrera Substrate and spatial planting pattern on the productivity of clonal mini gardens of Tectona grandis Linn. F 2022-08-03T11:24:46-06:00 Arantxa Rodríguez-Solís Yorleny Badilla-Valverde Olman Murillo <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">Introduction.</span></strong><em><strong> </strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Tectona grandis</span></em> is the species with the largest planted area in Costa Rica, due to the high prices in the international market. The production of plants for reforestation has been technified in the country and is currently being developed based on protected environment technologies, which increase productivity, reduce operating costs, and offer planting material throughout the year. <span class="CharOverride-6" lang=""><strong>Objective.</strong> </span>To evaluate the effect of two substrates and five planting densities on the productivity of clonal mini-gardens of <em><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Tectona grandis</span> </em>in a protected environment. <span class="CharOverride-6" lang=""><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>Four readily available inert substrates were characterized by granulometry and moisture retention analysis, from which stone dust was selected as the optimum substrate. An experimental trial with a 2x5 factorial design was established in San Carlos, Costa Rica to evaluate two substrates (stone dust alone and with 25 % charcoal) and five planting densities (cm) of 10x10, 10x5, 7x5, 10x10 with two plants per hole and 10x10 with one plant in the middle. Each density had four clones as a replicate effect. The trial was evaluated during five continuous production cycles from January to September 2021. <span class="CharOverride-6" lang=""><strong>Results.</strong> </span>The use of stone dust as substrate, without charcoal, recorded the highest productivity at a lower cost. The spatial planting arrangement of 10x10 cm with one plant in the middle (n=145 plants/m<sup><span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">2</span></sup>), recorded the highest shoot production per mother plant (1.16). The 7x5 cm arrangement increased productivity by up to 206 shoots m<sup><span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">2</span></sup>/month. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">Conclusion. </span></strong>The change in planting density of the clonal mini-garden, in a first stage to 10x10cm with an additional plant in the center, resulted in a high impact on productivity (74 %), greater efficiency in the use of space, and a better gradual change in the operating system.</p> 2023-03-07T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Arantxa Rodríguez-Solís, Yorleny Badilla-Valverde, Olman Murillo Refreshing whey drink with the addition of rice flour and orange flavor 2022-08-24T14:42:16-06:00 Ana Maritza Colominas-Aspuro Dainelis Rodríguez-González Héctor Manuel Zumbado-Fernández <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1" lang="es-ES"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong> Whey is the residual liquid product of the manufacture of cheese with useful nutritional value. It contains 95 % of the lactose, 25 % of the proteins and 8 % of fat of the total milk components.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-2">Objective. </span></strong>To elaborate a refreshing whey drink with the addition of rice flour and orange concentrate. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>The experimental work was realized at Food Department laboratories belongs to Pharmacy and Foods Institute from Universidad de La Habana-Cuba, between January and May 2021. The raw materials: whey, rice flower, and orange concentrated juice were characterized. A mix design was applied using Design–expert version 8.0 program to get the better formulation (combination of ingredients). The independent variables in percentage were: whey (79.95 to 84.15), concentrated orange juice (7 to 11), and guar gum stabilizer (from 0.1 to 0.3), and as response variables, acceptability and stability of the obtained drink. The best combination of ingredients was evaluated by a panel of judges based on the intensity of the odor, orange flavor, and consistency, using the attibutes “light”, “moderate” and “marked”. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results. </span></strong>The best formulation was composed of whey (84.15 %), orange concentrate (7 %), refined sugar (5 %), rice flour (3.75 %), and guar gum stabilizer (0.1 %). The sensorial acceptability criteria given by the training judges was “I like it”. Regarding the intensity of the orange smell, the whey beverage received a balanced criteria between the “light” and “moderate” ratings and the consistency was qualified as “light”. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.</span> </strong>All formulations tested showed good stability and adequate sensory acceptability. The best combination showed no phase separation at 24 hours after processing and was characterized by twenty tasters.</p> 2023-03-10T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ana Maritza Colominas-Aspuro, Dainelis Rodríguez-González, Héctor Manuel Zumbado-Fernández Semen analysis in precision farming in the 21st century 2022-08-24T11:07:21-06:00 Carles Soler Anthony Valverde <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction. </span></strong>Assisted reproduction of animals traces its origins in the domestication of livestock species useful to humans. The consequent artificial selection processes allowed the development of biotechnological techniques that contributed to the improvement of animal production capacities.<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Objective. </strong></span>To contextualize the seminal analysis in precision farming in the 21st century. <span class="CharOverride-4"><strong>Development.</strong> </span>The visualization of spermatozoa under the microscope can be considered as the first step in the advent of reproductive biotechnology and the basis for the development of assisted reproductive techniques. With the improvement of microscopy methods, it was possible to characterize male gametes, which meant a significant advance in artificial insemination technology. The turning point marked by the development of sperm conservation techniques implied a substantive change in the development of these technologies in livestock species, either with cryopreserved or refrigerated semen. These methods are of high value in the case of threatened species since germplasm banks can be created for genetic conservation and rescue of species at risk of extinction. Semen analysis has been developed alongside with assisted reproduction techniques and today it is considered a relevant technique in animal reproduction biotechnology, which has been perfected through the advancement of science and technology, optical physics, and computing.<span class="CharOverride-4"><strong> Conclusion.</strong> </span>Seminal analysis has undergone a paradigm shift by rejecting obsolete techniques of subjective evaluation of semen quality and adopting objective methods of semen evaluation, through the analysis of large volumes of data and motility, kinematics, morphometrics, morphological, and DNA fragmentation variables, which allow a better characterization of the ejaculates of breeders in artificial insemination centers.</p> 2023-01-30T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Carles Soler, Anthony Valverde Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a caprine milk caramel with the inclusion of amaretto 2022-07-26T09:25:58-06:00 Pamela Malavassi-Conejo Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos Diana Víquez-Barrantes Marcia Cordero-García <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction</span>.</strong> Worldwide, bovine dairy products are prevalent, so there is a need for studies focused on less traditional milk, such as goat milk.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-4">Objective.</span></strong> To evaluate the effect of two levels of inclusion of amaretto on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of a goat milk caramel. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Materials and methods.</span></strong> Between January and September 2017, at the Universidad de Costa Rica, milk caramels were made with two proportions (6 % and 9 %) of amaretto, which were selected using two focus groups, pH, Brix degrees, a<span class="CharOverride-5">w</span>, texture, color, and sensory liking were evaluated. <span class="CharOverride-4"><strong>Results.</strong> </span>The milk caramels with inclusion of 6 % and 9 % amaretto obtained the following characteristics respectively: 71.8 and 70.8 ºBrix, pH= 6.8 and 6.9, a<span class="CharOverride-5">w</span>=0.8, hardness= 1.3 and 0.3, adhesiveness= 0.75 and 6.0, elasticity= 23.0 and 21.0, L*= 33.0 and 33.4, a*= 11.3 and 11.4, b*= 26.2, c*= 28.5 and 28.6, h*= 66.7 and 66.4, with an average liking of 7.3 and 7.7, and an average purchase intention of 6.9 and 7.2. The cluster analysis generated three groups of people: G1 = 25.5 % with a mean liking of 4.7 and 6.2 for the 6 % and 9 % formulations, respectively; G2 = 19.6 % with a mean liking of 8.5 and 5.5 for the 6 % and 9 % formulations, respectively; and G3 = 54.9 % with a mean liking of 8.2 and 9.1 for the 6 % and 9 % formulations, respectively. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Conclusions. </span></strong>The inclusion of amaretto in the goat milk caramel turned out to be the product with the best profile. No significant differences were observed between the two liquor inclusion levels. The results suggest that both products had appropriate technical characteristics and taste.</p> 2023-03-16T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Pamela Malavassi-Conejo, Alejandro Chacón-Villalobos, Diana Víquez-Barrantes, Marcia Cordero-García Traceability in the agricultural sector: A review for the period 2017 – 2022 2022-07-26T10:23:44-06:00 Andrés Mauricio Hualpa Zúñiga Jorge Eliécer Rangel Díaz <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span> </strong>Traceability is regarded in business systems as a monitoring and control tool that is centered on measuring and gathering data for efficient resource allocation. The agricultural sector is no stranger to this practice because, like other industrial systems, it integrates control needs at the level of cultivation, supply of inputs, transformation, transportation, and marketing of products. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong> </span>To identify objects and scopes of monitoring, analysis units, and adoption of traceability trends in the agricultural supply chain, in order to reference the development of recent studies and publications that integrate this control function in this sector. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Development. </span></strong>The applied methodology was developed through the search, selection, and analysis of articles in scientific repositories such as Science Direct and AGRIS, to identify trends in agricultural traceability in the years 2017 to 2022. Application and integration trends of traceability systems were recognized in the agricultural sector around different approaches, including digitization and information security, measurement of agricultural productivity and environmental impact mainly within the concept of sustainability. Lines of research are presented in its conclusions, as well as the knowledge gaps for future work.<span class="CharOverride-2"> <strong>Conclusions.</strong></span> The results of the review in the last six years frame traceability trends mainly in the digital monitoring of cultivation processes, the measurement of productivity, and the environmental impact. The degree of direct intervention in the producer represents the highest proportion in the category of the logistic scope of traceability. Therefore, it is recommended in the future the development of traceability systems that monitor productivity, environmental, and social impact indicators in a convergent manner, as well as the integrated participations of actors in the agricultural sector, including producers, technical advisors, and government entities.</p> 2023-02-08T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Andrés Mauricio Hualpa Zúñiga, Jorge Eliécer Rangel Díaz Autochthonous microorganisms as an alternative for the biofertilization of Glycine max (L.) Merrill 2022-10-11T07:53:04-06:00 Wilson Geobel Ceiro Catasú Ramiro Remigio Gaibor Fernández Carlos Augusto Vargas Gálvez Harri Botello Guevara Gesly Bonilla Landaverry Oandis Sosa Sánchez <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1" lang="es-ES"><strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Introduction.</span> </strong>Soybean (<em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">Glycine max</span> </em>(L.) Merrill) has economic and nutritional importance due to its protein levels and vegetable oil content of biological quality, necessary for human and animal feed. The microbial alternatives for biofertilization of this crop would represent an option for its production with low inputs in tropical conditions. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Objective.</span> </strong>To evaluate the effect of autochthonous microorganisms (MA) as an alternative for biofertilization of<em> <span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">G. max</span> </em>under low-input production conditions.<span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""> <strong>Materials and methods. </strong></span>The experiment was established in a farm located in the town of El Coco, Yara, Granma, Cuba, on a Carbonated Fluffy Brown soil, during the year 2021. Certified <em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">G. max</span></em> cv. Incasoy-27 seeds were used. Sowing was carried out in spring at a distance of 0.70 m x 0.04 m. Three doses of MA (12, 24, and 36 L ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">-1</span></sup>) and an absolute control where used. Variables of growth, yield, and their components were evaluated. A randomized block design was used. Data were processed by ANOVA, linear regression, correlation, and principal component analysis.<span class="CharOverride-5" lang=""> <strong>Results.</strong></span> The MA biostimulated the growth of <em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">G. max</span></em> in a range of 12 % and 24 %, while the yield was favored between 16 % and 44 %. Pearson’s correlation analysis indicated that the seeds mass per plant and number of pods per plant were the variables most strongly interrelated with yield. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5" lang="">Conclusion. </span></strong>The inclusion of MA achieved a biostimulation of plants length growth of <em><span class="CharOverride-6" lang="">G. max</span> </em>cv. Incasoy-27 compared to the control and the agricultural yield was enhanced.</p> 2023-02-24T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Wilson Geobel Ceiro Catasú, Ramiro Remigio Gaibor Fernández, Carlos Augusto Vargas Gálvez, Harri Botello Guevara, Gesly Bonilla Landaverry, Oandis Sosa Sánchez Physico-chemical and sensory characterization of two rice (Oryza sativa) varieties during aging process 2022-10-25T10:36:51-06:00 Adriana Araya-Morice Ana Laura Mora-Norori Elba Cubero-Castillo Alvaro Azofeifa Yorleny Araya-Quesada <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Once harvested, paddy rice is stored in aerated silos for temperature control, which is known as rice aging. During aging, physicochemical, and physiological changes occur in the rice grain, these changes affect its culinary quality.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To determine the effect of aging time on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of two rice varieties.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Materials and methods.</span>&nbsp;</strong>This study was carried out in Agrifood Science Faculty Laboratories of the Universidad de Costa Rica, between September 2018 and March 2019. The two rice varieties studied were grown in Osa, Puntarenas. The first cv. Lazarroz FL, indica type, and the second cv. UCR-168-10, aromatic type were stored for 4.5 months. During storage, total starch, resistant starch, amylose, moisture, protein, was determined, and sensory attributes were evaluated with a trained sensory panel.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The two rice varieties studied don’t show significant differences during 4.5 months of storage in moisture, total starch, and resistant starch. Amylose content showed variation without a clear trend. Protein content was reduced during aging until 2,5 months of storage. According to the sensory test, attributes such as integral flavor and stickiness did not show significant differences throughout the study, while the remaining parameters did, either over time or between varieties. Cooked rice appearance showed an improvement up to 2,5 months aging for the two varieties. Whiteness of rice increased for both varieties during aging.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Conclusion.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Storing rice for 2,5 months achieved the desired changes in protein and sensory attributes for the rice varieties evaluated.</p> 2022-10-25T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Adriana Araya-Morice, Ana Laura Mora-Norori, Elba Cubero-Castillo, Alvaro Azofeifa, Yorleny Araya-Quesada Quantification of the percentage of total broken grain in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by digital image analysis 2022-08-11T15:26:43-06:00 Luis Arley Zúñiga Picado Stefanny Campos Boza Juan Roberto Mora Chaves Luis Barboza-Barquero <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-7">Introduction. </span></strong>Digital image analysis (DIA) can be used to evaluate the quality parameters of rice grains, such as the percentage of whole grain. <strong><span class="CharOverride-7">Objective. </span></strong>To quantify percentage of total broken grain by means of digital image analysis (DIA) applied to the quantification of rice (<em><span class="CharOverride-8">Oryza sativa</span></em> L.) quality. <strong><span class="CharOverride-7">Materials and methods. </span></strong>The present work was developed in facilities of the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) of the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Costa Rica, in 2021. The work was carried out with commercial rice samples. A sample plate was developed to facilitate the arrangement of the grains and to acquire the digital images. The length parameters established in the technical regulation of Costa Rica RTCR 202:1998 were used to quantify the percentages of small broken, broken grains, and whole grains, which were quantified conventionally and by means of digital images. The DIA included the segmentation and binarization process of the objects (small broken, broken grains, and whole grain) to quantify their areas and catalog the digitally identified elements in weight values. <span class="CharOverride-7"><strong>Results.</strong> </span>It was possible to quantified the percentage of small broken and broken grain with DIA. The correlation between the variables quantified by DIA and those evaluated conventionally was greater than 0.93 for the small broken property and 0.98 for broken grain. Conventional analysis requires 1 to 2 hours to determine the percentage of total broken grain and other quality properties in each rice sample. The digital analysis requires 7 to 23 minutes per sample plate to analyze all the properties evaluated (small broken and broken grain).<strong> </strong><span class="CharOverride-7"><strong>Conclusions.</strong> </span>The digital analysis method applied allowed to determine the total broken grain properties in samples composed of hundreds of grains.</p> 2022-11-30T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Luis Arley Zúñiga Picado, Stefanny Campos Boza, Juan Roberto Mora Chaves, Luis Barboza-Barquero Morphology and viability test optimization in seeds of Passiflora spp. from Costa Rica 2022-10-15T09:03:53-06:00 Elizabeth Vega-Corrales Verónica Campos-Sánchez Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas Sonia Bertsch-Hernández Ester Vargas-Ramírez <p><span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>In Costa Rica there are 51 native species of passion fruit plants that have commercial potential due to their phytochemical characteristics. In&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-6"><em>Passiflora</em>&nbsp;</span>the seminal characteristics can be used to taxonomically classify the genus species. The identification of plant material and the development of methodologies that enable quality assessment is essential for propagation, production, and conservation.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.&nbsp;</span></strong>To characterize&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Passiflora biflora&nbsp;</span></em>and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">Passiflora adenopoda</span></em>&nbsp;seeds based on their morphology and to optimize the protocol for determining their viability by means of the tetrazolium test.<span class="CharOverride-5">&nbsp;<strong>Materials and methods.</strong></span><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Morphological characterization and viability trials were carried out in 2022, at the Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS), Universidad de Costa Rica. Twelve external morphological characters and the internal structures of&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. biflora</span>&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>&nbsp;were characterized. For the optimization of the tetrazolium test protocol, the effect of two types of cutting (longitudinal and angular), two concentrations of tetrazolium salt (0.5 % and 1 %), three temperatures (30, 35, and 40 ºC), and four incubation times (3, 6, 12, and 24 h) were assessed.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results.&nbsp;</span></strong>The morphological characters evaluated allowed the seeds to be classified as&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. biflora</span>&nbsp;</em>and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>. By using 1 % tetrazolium salt, a longitudinal cut, a temperature of 40 ºC, and an incubation time of 3 h, similar viability percentage was obtained (90 % in<span class="CharOverride-6">&nbsp;<em>P. biflora</em></span><em>&nbsp;</em>and 91 % in&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>), and a staining of the same quality, as that obtained with the international standardized method.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The seminal characteristics assessed allowed the classification of the analyzed seeds as<span class="CharOverride-6">&nbsp;<em>P. biflora</em></span>&nbsp;and&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-6">P. adenopoda</span></em>. In addition, the tetrazolium test protocol was optimized by reducing the incubation time from 24 to 3 hours.</p> 2022-10-14T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Elizabeth Vega-Corrales, Verónica Campos-Sánchez, Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas, Sonia Bertsch-Hernández, Ester Vargas-Ramírez Physiological seed quality of carrot (Daucus carota L.) assessed by vigor testing 2022-10-20T09:04:29-06:00 Edgar Jesús Vindas Quesada Andrés Antonio Monge Vargas Carolina Porras Martínez Luis Barboza Barquero <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction</span>.</strong> In carrot cultivation direct sowing is practiced because the seedling cannot resist the stress of transplanting. It is essential to use seeds that germinate in a maximum of seven days and uniformly. Seeds vigor is associated with yield performance in the field and, at the international level there are different test to measure it. However, in carrot, the methodologies are still scarce and are not standardized.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To determine the physiological quality in seeds of two varieties of carrot (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Daucus carota</span></em>&nbsp;L.) by mean of vigor tests.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.</span>&nbsp;</strong>This research was carried out at the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) of the Universidad de Costa Rica in 2018. Seeds of Bangor and Triunfo varieties with moisture percentages of 7 %, 10 %, and 13 % were used. The vigor tests used were the following: radicle protrusion, first germination count (seven days), accelerated aging, electrical conductivity, and the germination analysis by digital images. Pearson’s correlation analyses were performed between the variables studied.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>Significant correlation coefficients (Pearson’s r) were observed for electrical conductivity with variables obtained from the image analysis: t10 (r=0.83), t50 (r=0.87), and the area under the curve (r=-0.72). Trough the electrical conductivity test, it was determined that the Bangor lot had greater vigor than the Triunfo lot (Tukey, p≤0.05).&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusions.&nbsp;</span></strong>The analysis of digital images and the electrical conductivity tests allowed measuring the vigor in seed lots of Bangor and Triunfo varieties, and complementing them with germination results to determine their physiological quality.</p> 2022-10-19T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Edgar Jesús Vindas Quesada, Andrés Antonio Monge Vargas, Carolina Porras Martínez, Luis Barboza Barquero Egg quality and productive performance of ISA Brown laying hens with grazing access 2022-10-14T08:54:33-06:00 Rodolfo WingChing-Jones Rebeca Zamora Sanabria Sianny Chavarría-Zamora <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1" lang="es-ES"><strong><span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">Introduction. </span></strong>Egg production systems are critical to food security. Concerns about animal welfare are increasing the interest in egg production systems with access to grazing. <span class="CharOverride-4" lang=""><strong>Objective.</strong> </span>To describe the productive performances, morphological characteristics, and nutritional quality of the eggs from laying hens of the Isa Brown genetic line in a floor system with access to grazing.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">Materials and Methods.</span> </strong>The research was carried out between July 2018 and January 2020 in the central canton of Turrialba, Cartago, Costa Rica, with hens of the Isa Brown genetic line with access to grazing. Productive performances were compared with the standard of the genetic line. External and internal morphological variables of the egg were evaluated and its nutritional content (dry matter, crude protein, ethereal extract, ash, calcium, phosphorus, saturated fatty acids (SFA), monounsaturated (MUFA), and polyunsaturated (PUFA) was characterized in hens of different ages. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">Results. </span></strong>The productive performances was not different from the genetic standard. The increase in bird age had a statistically significant influence on the increase in egg and shell weight, and the decrease in morphological index. Nutritional analysis indicated that increasing hen age decreased the dry matter content and the concentration of SFA and MUFA in the egg. The PUFA/SFA ratio of the eggs was higher than 0.45, regardless of the age of the laying hen. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4" lang="">Conclusion. </span></strong>The productive indicators of the hens with access to grazing did not differ from ISA Brown genetic line standards for alternative systems. Egg weight, yolk index, Haugh units, and morphology index varied with the age of the hen.</p> 2023-02-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Rodolfo WingChing-Jones, Rebeca Zamora-Sanabria, Sianny Chavarría-Zamora Phenological observations, oil characteristics and equilibrium isotherm of Myroxylon peruiferum seeds (Fabaceae) 2022-09-26T08:55:27-06:00 Diego Aguilar-Sandí Guillermo Solano-Quesada Ester Vargas-Ramírez Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas Andrea Irías-Mata Luis Barboza-Barquero <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.</span></strong> Phenological information on <em><span class="CharOverride-5">Myroxylon peruiferum</span></em> in Costa Rica is scarce. In addition, the characteristics of the oil and the equilibrium isotherm are unknown. The knowledge generated in this field will allow proper seed management and generate oil prospecting options. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objectives.</span></strong> (i) To document a flowering and fruiting event of a single <em><span class="CharOverride-5">M. peruiferum </span></em>tree. (ii) To determine the characteristics of the fruit and seed oil. (iii) To generate a water absorption/de-absorption isotherm. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>From March to May 2021, the flowering and fruiting of <em><span class="CharOverride-5">M. peruiferum</span></em> tree was documented in Montes de Oca, San Jose, Costa Rica. Mature fruits were collected between June and July. The oil content of fruits and seeds was characterized separately. A water absorption/de-absorption isotherm was elaborated, with which the fit of the Cromarty equation was tested. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results. </span></strong>The flowering, fruiting, and dispersal period lasted five months. These phenophases occurred simultaneously. Oleic acid was the main fatty acid. There was a significant correlation between the percentages of fatty acid in the fruit and seed oil, and between the contents of saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids. The oil is yellow, moderately intense, and luminous. As relative humidity increased, seed moisture content also increased. The linear relationship between the actual values and those obtained using the Cromarty equation was R<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">2</span></sup>= 0.93. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusion.</strong> </span>Mature fruit can be harvested between March and August, and be used for germination, propagation and oil prospecting studies. Once the relationship between relative humidity and seed moisture content is established, studies on seed storage and viability loss can be developed.</p> 2022-11-29T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Diego Aguilar-Sandí, Guillermo Solano-Quesada, Ester Vargas-Ramírez, Andrés Antonio Monge-Vargas, Andrea Irías-Mata, Luis Barboza-Barquero Comparison of fecal near-infrared with conventional methods to estimate intake and digestibility in sheep 2022-08-29T11:06:10-06:00 Diana Parra-Forero Olga Mayorga Mogollón Claudia Ariza-Nieto <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1" lang="es-ES"><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction. </span></strong>Intake and digestibility are parameters that define the quality of a forage; however, they are difficult and expensive to estimate. Near infrared spectroscopy technology applied to feces (NIRSf) is an alternative to conventional reference methods to estimate dry matter voluntary intake (DMVI) and digestibility (DMD) in sheep. <span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong> </span>To compare NIRSf technology with conventional methods for estimation of DMVI and DMD in confinement sheep. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>Six bioassays were carried out at the Tibaitata research center, Cundinamarca, Colombia, during 2019 and 2021 with five sheep (LW 58.28±11 kg) to estimate DMVI and DMD by three methods: gravimetry, markers and NIRSf. The animals were fed six diets contrasting in their nutritional value. Forage and feces samples were collected, dried, and ground for subsequent chemical and spectral analysis. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results. </span></strong>The estimation of DMVI and DMD was different (p&lt;0.001) in the six evaluated feeding regimenes, where the DMVIMW ranged from 37.54 to 82.58 g/kg LW<span class="CharOverride-3">0.75</span>, and the DMD ranged from 36.32 to 58.81 %. In the comparison of the estimation of DMVI and DMD by the referent method (gravimetric) with marker and NIRSf methods, shows that the NIRSf method presented a better adjustment compared to the marker method, presenting less root mean square error value (-1.53 and -1.75, respectively), lower mean absolute error (-3.01 and -0.5, respectively), and higher determination coefficient (+0.09 and +0.28, respectively).<strong> <span class="CharOverride-2">Conclusion. </span></strong>The estimation of the DMVI and the DMD by means of the NIRSf equations presented a better fit compared to the marker method, however, it is necessary to improve the accuracy of the calibrations using feces samples from animals under different productive contexts.</p> 2023-02-22T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Diana Parra-Forero, Olga Mayorga Mogollón, Claudia Ariza-Nieto Bioactive compounds in cheeses: biosynthesis, biological activity, and contribution of lactic acid bacteria 2022-07-20T08:13:48-06:00 Joel López-Mendoza Lourdes Adriano-Anaya Didiana Gálvez-López Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Introduction.</span></strong> Since 1990, there has been an increase in the rate of diseases associated with unhealthy diets and sedentary lifestyles, whose care is a challenge for health systems. This has aroused interest in functional foods, i.e., those that in addition to providing macro and micronutrients, provide substances that have a physiological effect on the body, which translates into improving the health of those who ingest them. Generically, these compounds are known as bioactives.<span class="CharOverride-2" lang=""> <strong>Objective.</strong> </span>To review the main bioactive substances reported in cheeses, as well as the role of microorganisms in their production and the biosynthetic routes of the main compounds. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Development. </span></strong>Milk and its derivatives are food products consumed around the world and show a constant increase in their production and consumption. This market trend is due to its flavor and nutritional value. One of the most demanded dairy products in the world are cheeses. They are a source of substances such as peptides, fatty acids, vitamins, bacteriocins, organic acids, gamma aminobutyric acid, etc. all with important biological activity. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2" lang="">Conclusion.</span></strong> The presence, quantity, and availability of the bioactive compounds present in the cheeses differ, as a result of the type of milk used for its elaboration, the type of microorganism used, either as starter or secondary culture, as well as the technological process employed.</p> 2023-03-06T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Joel López-Mendoza, Lourdes Adriano-Anaya, Didiana Gálvez-López, Alfredo Vázquez-Ovando Fast seed histology protocols: Benzene derivatives-free vs xylene-dependent 2022-10-06T09:03:37-06:00 M. Benavides-Acevedo J. Torres-Segura <p><span class="CharOverride-5"><strong>Introduction.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Seeds are complex structures that allow the biological and crop propagation of plants. Seed histology can be used for teaching, researching, and for pathological diagnostic. Histology protocols are commonly divided into 5 different stages: fixation, processing, cutting, staining, and mounting. Xylene is a dangerous reagent used during the processing, staining, and mounting of histological specimens that can contaminate the environment and is toxic for users.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span>&nbsp;</strong>To compare two new protocols for seed histology accelerated with microwave, tested on seeds of economic importance species.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Materials and methods.&nbsp;</span></strong>The experiments were done between January and May of 2022 at the Centro de Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS) of the Universidad de Costa Rica. The compared protocols were: a benzene derivatives-free (BDF) and a xylene-dependent (XD). Seeds of&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-4"><em>Carica papaya</em>&nbsp;</span>L. (Caricaceae) var. Pococí,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Coffea arabica</span></em>&nbsp;L. (Rubiaceae) var. Obata,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Glycine max</span></em>&nbsp;L. (Fabaceae) var. CIGRAS-06,&nbsp;<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Phaseolus vulgaris</span></em>&nbsp;L. (Fabaceae) var. Tayni,&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-4"><em>Oryza sativa</em>&nbsp;</span>L. (Poaceae) var. Lazarroz FL, and<span class="CharOverride-4">&nbsp;<em>Zea mays</em></span>&nbsp;L. (Poaceae) var. EJN-2 were used. Three technical replicates of five seeds of each species were tested with the XD and BDF protocols, on different days each replicate.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The photomicrographs obtained with both protocols showed that the samples maintained the morphology integrity of embryo, endosperm or cotyledons, and other seed structures. BDF and XD protocols produced seed histology slides and microphotographs. PAS-Coomassie Blue staining made a good differentiation of carbohydrates and proteins. Fastness of both protocols is a benefit compared with other protocols for plant histology that can take several days or even weeks.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusions.</span>&nbsp;</strong>The BDF and XD protocols were suitable for seed histology analysis of bean, coffee, maize, papaya, and soybean, slides were obtained in less than 5 hours. BDF protocol is the first for plant tissue processing that does not use benzene derivatives and that uses paraffin as embedding medium.</p> 2022-10-05T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 M. Benavides-Acevedo, J. Torres-Segura Nutritional contribution and sensory profile of panettone enriched with almonds, raisins and dehydrated blueberries 2022-10-25T08:56:39-06:00 Grisel Violeta Chiroque Velásquez <p class="Texto ParaOverride-1" lang="es-ES"><strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Introduction.</span></strong> In Peru, panettone, a brioche-type bread with raisins and candied fruit, is a product of high consumption throughout the year. Its preparation requires a large amount of flour, fat, and sugar, so its excessive consumption contributes to obesity problems and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the nutritional contribution and evaluate the level of acceptance of panettone enriched with almonds, raisins, and dehydrated blueberries, as a healthy alternative, without modifying the characteristic organoleptic attributes recognized by its consumers. <span class="CharOverride-6"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>In the physicochemical laboratory of the Universidad de Barranca (Lima, Peru), in December 2019, three types of panettone were formulated replacing the traditional filling with almonds, blond raisins, and dehydrated blueberries for a final composition of 40, 45, and 50 % w/w. They were subjected to sensory evaluation by ranking preference tests to qualify the attributes (color, smell, taste, and texture) and acceptance test with hedonic scale, to qualify the acceptance of the final product. The most acceptable product underwent physicochemical analysis to determine the nutritional contribution of the proposal. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Results.</span> </strong>The formulation with the highest acceptance was 45 % filler, even though the differences between treatments were not significant (p&gt;0.05) The macronutrient content was similar to what is offered in the market (p&gt;0.05). In relation to micronutrients, a contribution of 8 g of unsaturated fatty acids, 0.36, 5.8, 4.9, 33.3, 9.3, and 109 mg of vitamins B2, B3, E, iron, zinc, and calcium respectively, was observed per 100g g portion. <strong><span class="CharOverride-6">Conclusion.</span> </strong>Almonds, blond raisins, and dried cranberries improved the nutritional density of panettone, without significantly affecting the organoleptic characteristics of the product.</p> 2023-02-02T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Grisel Violeta Chiroque Velásquez Vitamin E profile in rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds grown and commercialized in Costa Rica 2022-09-27T09:03:12-06:00 Valery Conejo-López Luis Barboza-Barquero Álvaro Azofeifa-Delgado Ester Vargas-Ramírez Andrea Irías-Mata <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction.&nbsp;</span></strong>Rice (<em><span class="CharOverride-5">Oryza sativa</span></em>&nbsp;L.) is one of the most consumed cereals worldwide, the indica and japonica subspecies are the most cultivated. The vitamin E present in rice has a high antioxidant activity that contributes to extend the longevity of its seeds. Its quantification allows to know the nutritional contribution of this vitamin.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Objective.</strong>&nbsp;</span>To analyze the vitamin E profile in seeds of indica (registered commercial, aromatic, promising in development) and japonica subspecies of rice (<span class="CharOverride-5"><em>O. sativa</em>&nbsp;</span>L.), consumed in Costa Rica.&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Twenty-seven materials grown in the Chorotega and Brunca regions of Costa Rica, harvested in 2020 were analyzed. Vitamin E was quantified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass detection with chemical ionization source at atmospheric pressure at the Centro para Investigaciones en Granos y Semillas (CIGRAS), Universidad de Costa Rica, in 2021.&nbsp;<strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span>&nbsp;</strong>In the vitamin E profile, a characteristic clustering was obtained for the japonica samples, which was opposite to that presented by the indica samples. The majority compounds were γ-tocotrienol, α-tocopherol, and γ-tocopherol, the range of total vitamin E concentration was 5.50 to 33.20 μg g<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>, where the japonica subspecies reported the lowest amount (6.30 – 8.80 μg g<span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span>), while the Nayuribe sample, belonging to the registered commercial indica subspecies, obtained the highest concentration (33.20 ± 7.40 μg g<sup><span class="CharOverride-4">-1</span></sup>).&nbsp;<span class="CharOverride-2"><strong>Conclusion.</strong>&nbsp;</span>Although the analyzed subvarieties are phylogenetically from the same species, the significant differences found in the nutritional intake of vitamin E may be due to intrinsic characteristics of each subspecies. The significantly high vitamin E content in the Nayuribe sample showed that it is possible to find stocks for a high vitamin E content among the varieties analyzed.</p> 2022-09-27T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Valery Conejo-López, Luis Barboza-Barquero, Álvaro Azofeifa-Delgado, Ester Vargas-Ramírez, Andrea Irías-Mata Effect of temperature and storage time on hen egg quality 2022-10-04T14:46:55-06:00 Jennifer Madrigal-Portilla Catalina Salas-Durán Sofía Macaya-Quirós <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction. </span></strong>The hen egg is a food of high nutritional value, with protein of high biological value and easy digestion, due to that it is indispensable to know what affects its quality when storing it. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Objective. </span></strong>To evaluate the effect of temperature and days of storage on egg quality. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>The trial took place between December 2019 and January 2020, in Palmares, Alajuela, Costa Rica. In two different moments, egg samples were taken from Hy Line Brown hens: 1000 eggs at the start of production (21 weeks of age) and 1000 eggs at peak of production (28 weeks of age). The eggs were stored at controlled (7-10 °C) and room ((18-26 °C) temperatures for up to 21 days. The following egg physical quality parameters were assessed: egg weight, eggshell thickness and resistance, Haugh units, and yolk color at 1, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days of storage, as well as a qualitative evaluation according to USDA standards (2000).<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Results. </strong></span>Egg weight was significantly lower at room temperatures and longer days of storage at peak production. Eggshell thickness and resistance presented a positive relationship with each other. Haugh units presented a significant decrease as storage days go by, with a higher negative slope for the eggs at room temperature. The storage temperature and days of storage degraded the perception and qualitative classification of eggs by the consumers, in higher proportion for the eggs at room temperature. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Conclusion.</span> </strong>Storage at room temperature and between 14 to 21 days were factors that affected the egg quality and the possible consumer’s perception towards this product.</p> 2023-01-24T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Jennifer Madrigal-Portilla, Catalina Salas-Durán, Sofía Macaya-Quirós Factors conditioning the adoption rate of technified irrigation systems in Mexico 2022-10-04T14:41:50-06:00 José Alberto García-Salazar Fidel Bautista-Mayorga Ester Reyes-Santiago <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Introduction.</span></strong> To know the factors that determine the rate of adoption of technician irrigation systems is important because of the water savings that could be obtained by increasing the number of units that use more efficient systems. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the factors that affect the rate of adoption of technician irrigation systems in Mexico. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Materials and methods.</span></strong> A logit model was estimated where the dependent variable was the logit of the ratio of probabilities of using technician irrigation systems against other irrigation systems. The independent variables were: electricity price, water value, rainfall, temperature, number of over-exploited aquifers, farm size, utilization rate of production units that use sanitary measures, and educational level of agricultural producers. The estimate was made with data from Mexico’s 32 federative entities for 2019. <strong><span class="CharOverride-4">Results. </span></strong>The results indicated that, if the electricity price and the water value increase by 10 %, the rate or probability of using modernized irrigation systems increases from 24.51 to 25.42 and 26.17 %, respectively. A 10 % decrease in rainfall would increase the probability of using modernized irrigation systems from 24.51 to 25.41 %, while with a 5 % increase in temperature, this probability would increase from 24.51 to 29.40 %.<span class="CharOverride-4"> <strong>Conclusion.</strong> </span>These results demonstrated the importance of economic and climatic conditions as factors that affect the use of technician irrigation systems, therefore, in saving water.</p> 2023-01-19T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 José Alberto García-Salazar, Fidel Bautista-Mayorga, Ester Reyes-Santiago New thilinear hybrid of hard yellow corn for the Peruvian tropic 2022-08-03T11:27:30-06:00 Percy Díaz-Chuquizuta Edilson Hidalgo-Melendez Melbin Mendoza-Paredes Isaac Cieza-Ruiz Teófilo Wladimir Jara-Calvo Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Introduction. </span></strong>Hard yellow corn (<em><span class="CharOverride-4">Zea mays </span></em>L.) is the main source for food processing; therefore, it is necessary to generate hybrids with yields higher than 2.8 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup> and climatic adaptability. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Objective. </span></strong>To evaluate and compare the agronomic behavior of five experimental trilinear hybrids of hard yellow corn maize and the Marginal 28T variety in eight tropical Peruvian locations. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Materials and methods.</span> </strong>The experiment took place in two phases: from March 2018 to March 2019 in four validation plots in San Martin, and from March to December 2019 in four adaptabilities plots in San Martín, Pucallpa, Loreto, and Amazonas. The evaluated variables were: plant and ear height, size and weight of ear, roots lodging, rust resistance, and yield (t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>). A randomized complete block design was applied, with a combined analysis of yield genotype x environment interaction with the additive main effects and multiplicative interaction models. <strong><span class="CharOverride-2">Results.</span> </strong>The hybrid HTE6 had the highest ear diameter (4.66 cm), ear weight (190, 76 g), number of rows per ear (14.26), grains per row (37.45), total grain weight (156.21 g), and grain yield (7.21 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>). HTE6 showed superior adaptability in Iquitos (9.2 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>) and San Martín (8.1 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>). In the genotype-environmental interaction, it reached 7.18 t ha<sup><span class="CharOverride-3">-1</span></sup>, with the highest stability in the eight localities.<span class="CharOverride-2"> <strong>Conclusion. </strong></span>Among the five trilinear hybrids and the Marginal 28T variety, the HTE6 had the best agronomic performance and the highest yield in the eight evaluated locations. Thus, it is considered the more suitable trilinear hybrid for the tropical conditions of Peru.</p> 2022-12-20T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Percy Díaz-Chuquizuta, Edilson Hidalgo-Melendez, Melbin Mendoza-Paredes, Isaac Cieza-Ruiz, Teófilo Wladimir Jara-Calvo, Ofelia Andrea Valdés-Rodríguez Distribution of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus production areas of Panama 2022-10-04T14:38:22-06:00 Randy Atencio-Valdespino Vidal Aguilera-Cogley Anovel Barba-Alvarado Iván Ramos Rubén Collantes-González José Lezcano <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-8">Introduction.</span></strong> The asian psyllid (<em><span class="CharOverride-7">Diaphorina citri </span>Kuwayama</em>) is the main vector of the bacterium <em><span class="CharOverride-7">Candidatus </span></em>Liberibacter asiaticus that causes Huanglongbing (HLB) disease in citrus in Panama. <strong><span class="CharOverride-8">Objective.</span> </strong>To determine the geographic distribution and host plants of the asian psyllid within the citrus growing areas in Panama. <span class="CharOverride-8"><strong>Materials and methods.</strong> </span>The study was carried out from June to October 2021 through systematic sampling within 46 localities associated with commercial citrus and home gardens in seven provinces of Panama. In each plant, two new shoots of 10 cm long were bagged with a magic-seal plastic bag to capture the specimens and introduce them into 2 mm plastic vials with 95 % alcohol for later identification. The study variable included the count of the total number of specimens, and the data was analyzed as a percentage. <span class="CharOverride-8"><strong>Results.</strong> </span>Of the total of 73 collected samples, the presence of the Asian psyllid was confirmed in 21.92 % (16 samples). Its presence was positive in the provinces of Chiriquí, Coclé, Herrera, Panama, and West Panama, at altitudes of 17 to 1080 m.a.s.l. There was no presence of the psyllid in the provinces of Los Santos and Veraguas. Of the 16 samples that were positive, 50 % belonged to the myrtle plant, followed by orange (18.75 %), and creole lemon (12.50 %).<span class="CharOverride-8"> <strong>Conclusion.</strong></span><strong> </strong>The distribution of the asian psyllid vector of HLB in commercial citrus and home gardens in the main citrus growing areas in Panama was presented at different heights above sea level, mainly associated with the presence of the host plants such as myrtle, orange, and creole lemon.</p> 2023-01-18T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Randy Atencio-Valdespino, Vidal Aguilera-Cogley, Anovel Barba-Alvarado, Iván Ramos, Rubén Collantes-González, José Lezcano Germination and growth of Sterculia colombiana in Arosemena Tola, Napo, Ecuador 2022-08-17T15:15:08-06:00 Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Saltos Evelyn Aracelly Villacis-Estrada Micela Delsy Tapuy-Andy Briyidt Maryeli Pillco-Herrera Jonny David Quishpe-Lopez Katherine Pamela López-Adriano <p><strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Introduction.</span></strong> The Amazon region has a great plant diversity, but studies on their propagation and growth have been carried out in few species. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Objective.</span> </strong>To evaluate the <em>in situ</em> and <em>ex situ</em> germination of <span class="CharOverride-6"><em>Sterculia colombiana</em> </span>and its growth characteristics after planting in ground covers of primary forest and intervened areas.<span class="CharOverride-5"> <strong>Materials and methods.</strong></span><strong> </strong>The study was carried out in Napo, Ecuador, in the period 2019-2020. The germination of<span class="CharOverride-6"> <em>S. colombiana </em></span>was characterized in the variables: days and percentage to emergence, plant height, stem diameter and number of leaves, under greenhouse conditions and planted at the collection site. The plants obtained in the germination test were transplanted to a ground cover of primary forest (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">in situ</span></em>) and an intervened area with replacement vegetation (<em><span class="CharOverride-6">ex situ</span></em>). Linear, quadratic, cubic, exponential, and logarithmic growth models for stem height and diameter were evaluated. The air and soil temperature and the physical-chemical characteristics of the soil were recorded. An analysis of variance was performed to determine differences in growth and survival between the plantation sites and between the plants obtained in the <span class="CharOverride-6">in situ</span> and <em><span class="CharOverride-6">ex situ</span></em> tests.<strong> <span class="CharOverride-5">Results.</span> </strong>The seedlings obtained from greenhouses reported fewer days to emergence and higher values in the rest of the variables evaluated than those grown<span class="CharOverride-6"> <em>in situ</em></span><em>.</em> The plants developed in the different evaluated covers, without significant differences in growth at the end of the study, only a significant correlation at 5 % between stem diameter and air temperature was reported. <strong><span class="CharOverride-5">Conclusions. </span></strong><em><span class="CharOverride-6">Sterculia colombiana </span></em>germinated in a greenhouse and developed in the transplant sites, without this influencing its growth. Temperature was the only factor that reported significant correlations with growth at the end of the evaluation period.</p> 2023-02-16T00:00:00-06:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Ricardo Vinicio Abril-Santos, Evelyn Aracely Villacis-Estrada, Micela Delsy Tapuy-Andy, Briyit Maryeli Pillco-Herrera, Jonny David Quishpe-Lopez, Katherine Pamela López-Adriano