The growth of humankind has brought with it several environmental problems that have worsened over time, including the loss of insect biodiversity. The Odonata order have been indicated by several authors as relevant bioindicators for assessing and monitoring environmental conditions of specific locations. The main objective of this study was to conduct an inventory of the Odonata diversity in the Pampa Biome, of the Southern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. The species survey was conducted between November 2014 and October 2015. Adult insects were collected in Capão do Leão, Pelotas and Rio Grande cities. Each location was visited nine times, totalizing 54 samplings. Entomological nets were used for capturing adult insects, which were then kept in entomological envelopes. The identification of the specimens was carried out with taxonomic keys of Lencioni and Heckman. In addition, Chao-1, the Shannon-Wiener and Jackknife indexes were associated with the sampling areas. During the species survey a total of 2 680 Odonata specimens were collected, representing 45 species encompassed in 22 genera and six families. The Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae families were registered in 60 and 30 % of the specimens sampled, followed of the Aeshnidae, Calopterygidae, Gomphidae and Lestidae, of reduced occurrence. The genera Erythrodiplax, Micrathyria and Ischnura were found at least once in all the visited sites. The study resulted in the registration for the first time of the following species: Progomphus complicatus Selys, Lestes minutus Selys, Homeoura ambigua Ris, and Tauriphila xiphea Ris. These species were not previously reported in any Odonata study of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. In regard to Odonata diversity in the Southern region of Rio Grande do Sul, Libellulidae and Coenagrionidae are the families more abundants. Erythrodiplax and Micrathyria are the most common genera. Miathyria marcella represented 9.6 % of all collected libellulidae and was the most abundant specie. Capão do Leão has the largest species diversity (wealth), the largest number of collected specimens and more diversity than Pelotas and Rio Grande. However, the results showed that the Odonatofauna in the State are still little known, and new studies are needed to better describe this group in other regions.

Keywords: Insecta, biodiversity, Rio Grande do Sul, dragonflies, fauna indexes