Relación fenología-clima de cuatro especies de orquídeas en un bosque altoandino de Colombia
Keywords:Andean forest, climatic variables, flowering, fruiting, Orchidaceae
The objective of this research was to characterize, during an annual cycle, the relationship between weather and the phenology of four common orchid species in a high-Andean forest of the Eastern Cordillera of Colombia. Flowering and fruiting of 30 adult individuals of Cyrtochilum revolutum, Malaxis excavata, Ponthieva diptera and Stelis pulchella were monitored on a monthly basis. The number of flowering buds, open flowers, unripe and ripe fruits (closed and open capsule, respectively) were correlated to climatic variables (i.e. mean monthly precipitation, mean, minimum and maximum monthly temperature and, relative humidity) obtained during the same time period. The results showed that all orchid species exhibited reproductive activity during the studied year. C. revolutum only flowered, and was positively correlated with rainfall. The flowering peak of S. pulchella, occurred during the coldest months when relative humidity was also low. In contrast, the peak of unripe fruits was recorded when both the relative humidity and mean temperature were the highest, while capsules opened during the driest months. Flowering and fruiting of M. excavata were extended, lasting more than four months. The greatest number of open flowers was positively correlated to precipitation, while the number of unripe fruits was correlated with relative humidity and rainfall of two- months prior. Few individuals of P. diptera flowered and fruited during the studied year, while reproductive activity was correlated to rainfall and temperature. Although the relationship between climatic variables and phenology is differential between species, our findings consistently showed that three out of four of the studied species (C. revolutum, M. excavata y P. diptera) flowered during the rainy season with significant positive correlations, which is discussed in light of literature findings.
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