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Pensar en Movimiento: Revista de Ciencias del Ejercicio y la Salud ISSN Impreso: 1409-0724 ISSN electrónico: 1659-4436

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Práctica mental, física o combinada en el desempeño y aprendizaje motor: una respuesta meta-analítica
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Palabras clave

mental practice
motor learning
motor control
motor skills
práctica mental
aprendizaje motor
control motor
destrezas motrices
prática mental
aprendizagem motora
controle motor
destrezas motoras

Cómo citar

Jiménez Díaz, J., Morera-Castro, M., Chaves-Castro, K., Portuguez-Molina, P., Araya-Vargas, G., & Salazar, W. (2022). Práctica mental, física o combinada en el desempeño y aprendizaje motor: una respuesta meta-analítica. Pensar En Movimiento: Revista De Ciencias Del Ejercicio Y La Salud, 20(2), e51150. https://doi.org/10.15517/pensarmov.v20i2.51150

Resumen

En el proceso de adquisición de destrezas motrices la práctica es un elemento fundamental por que facilita el aprendizaje; esta práctica puede ser de dos tipos: física o mental. El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el tamaño de efecto de la práctica física (PF), práctica mental (PM) y la práctica combinada (PC) a lo largo del proceso de adquisición y retención en el desempeño de las destrezas motrices, utilizando el enfoque meta-analítico y el análisis de posibles variables moderadoras. Se utilizó el modelo de efectos aleatorios para calcular el tamaño de efecto (TE). Se incluyeron 24 estudios y se obtuvo un total de 150 TE, separados en cuatro grupos. En la fase de adquisición se encontró que la PF (TE = 1.75; n = 36; IC = 0.96,3.55; Q = 113; I2 = 92%), la PM (TE = 0.80; n = 36; IC = 0.50,1.09; Q = 108; I 2= 74%) y la PC (TE = 1.78; n = 22; IC = 1.39,2.18; Q = 167; I2 = 79%) mejoraron su desempeño; además, el grupo control (GC) mejoró el desempeño en la adquisición (TE = 0.18; n = 22; IC = 0.02,0.35; Q = 19; I 2= 0%). Una metarregresión indicó que solo la práctica física, mental y combinada predicen significativamente el TE. En la fase de retención, ni la PF (TE = -0.97; n = 9; IC = -0.41,0.02; Q = 12; I2 = 29%), la PM (TE = 0.62; n = 6; IC = -0.19,1.45; Q = 22; I2 = 83%), la PC (TE = -0.01; n = 14; IC = -0.26,0.25; Q = 23; I2 = 46%), ni el GC (TE = -0.15; n = 5; IC = -0.75,0.44; Q = 11; I2 = 66%) presentaron un cambio significativo. Se analizaron las posibles variables moderadoras. Los resultados sugieren que los tres tipos de práctica mejoran en el desempeño en la fase de adquisición; mientras que, en la etapa de retención, favorecen a mantener lo aprendido. La PM, no reemplaza la PF; no obstante, bajo algunas condiciones, se puede complementar la PF con PM.

https://doi.org/10.15517/pensarmov.v20i2.51150
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Derechos de autor 2022 Judith Jiménez Díaz, María Morera-Castro, Karla Chaves-Castro, Priscilla Portuguez-Molina, Gerardo Araya-Vargas, Walter Salazar

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