Población y Salud en Mesoamérica https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm <p><strong>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica&nbsp;</strong>is an&nbsp;academic&nbsp;electronic&nbsp;journal, published biannually by the Centro Centroamericano de Población&nbsp;and whose publisher is the University of Costa Rica. The <strong>main objective</strong> of this publication is the dissemination of research on population from demographic perspective, and public health. This journal is <a href="https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/about">registered and indexed</a> in important international indexes. E-mail contact: <a href="mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p><strong>URL OAI-PMH:</strong> <a href="/index.php/psm/oai">https://revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/oai</a></p> en-US <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Población y Salud en Mesoamérica is a free and open access electronic journal. <strong>The content of this site is protected under Creative Commons license</strong>. It allows you to open, download, print, distribute and establish links to the articles contained in this publication, as long as our journal is acknowledged, including the name and domain (http://ccp.ucr.ac.cr/revista/).</p> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:<br><br></p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a&nbsp;<a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/" target="_new">Creative Commons Attribution License</a>&nbsp;that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> </ol> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <ol type="a"> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See&nbsp;<a href="http://opcit.eprints.org/oacitation-biblio.html" target="_new">The Effect of Open Access</a>).</li> </ol> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>The CCP is a research center that has limited resources obtained from the University of Costa Rica and external inputs for projects like this post. Public recognition to the use of this site can help fundraising for future development.</p> <p>If you or your organization is interested in providing support for the future development of this site, you may be contacted by writing to: <a href="mailto:revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr">revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr</a></p> <p>Thank you for your interest in Population and Health in Middle America</p> revista.ccp@ucr.ac.cr (Adrián Murillo González) adrian.murillogonzalez@ucr.ac.cr (Adrián Murillo González) Fri, 01 Jul 2022 12:17:07 -0600 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Presentation: Volume 20, Issue 1 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/51712 <p>The editorial team of the journal Población y Salud en Mesoamérica of the University of Costa Rica is pleased to present volume 20, issue 1. A compilation of articles with which the journal celebrates its twentieth issue of uninterrupted publications related to health from a demographic and social perspective, thus contributing to improve the dissemination of scientific research at the local and regional level.</p> Adrián Murillo González, Jorge Barquero ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/51712 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 An empirical analysis of homicides in Mexico through Machine Learning and statistical design of experiments https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48217 <p>Homicide is one of the most important mortality causes that has reduced the Mexican life expectancy. That is why the aim of this work is to identify some sociodemographic and economic factors that can help explain homicides in Mexico and measure their impact, assuming the current conditions prevail. To do that, several Machine Learning (ML) methods were evaluated. The C5.0 model is best suited for the data at hand. After fine-tuning the algorithm, we used the estimated model to identify the main factors that explain homicides. Among these factors, eleven were selected that can be influenced by direct changes in domestic public policy, laws and/or regulations. These were used as input in a two-level fractional factorial Statistical Design of Experiments (DOE) to estimate their main effects and possible interactions. Although several of these factors had statistically significant effects on homicide rate, the one that had the biggest and direct impact from a practical perspective, was the Rule of Law Index (RLI). In fact, if we assumed that all states had the median RLI of 0.37, implementing domestic policies and procedures to move them all to the best RLI level could significantly reduce homicide rates.</p> Jose Eliud Silva Urrutia, Miguel A. Villalobos ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48217 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of probable cases of congenital Zika syndrome and dengue antibody levels, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico. https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48339 <p>A case series of suspected cases of congenital Zika syndrome in a maternity hospital in Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas, Mexico was assembled to assess why they were not reported and explore the hypothesis of dengue antibody dependent Zika disease.&nbsp; Clinical and imaging records, and interviews of a total of 13 of the cases revealed that only one of them was laboratory confirmed because appropriate specimens were not collected from the newborns as required by the case definition. 1) Microcephaly, 2) hypoplasia/hypogeneses, thinning or absence of brain structures, 3) multiple birth defects, 4) calcifications, and cysts, 5) meningocele/encephalocele and 6) hydrocephalus were found in 100%, 76.9%, 38.5%, 38.5%, 30.8%, and 23.1%, respectively. They clustered geographically, and 77% occurred within May 2016 to March 2017, and recalled or were told by a doctor they Zika fever. Using as referent a group of mothers who delivered normal newborns in the same hospital, and an 80% plaque reduction neutralization test for dengue virus 1 and 2, there was a four-fold increased risk of congenital Zika syndrome among those with dengue 1 antibody as compared to those with dengue 2 antibody (odds ratio = 3.6; 95% confidence interval: 0.7, 20.5), reaching only borderline statistical significance.&nbsp; The case definitions of congenital Zika syndrome used during the pandemic probably needed to be simpler to gain sensitivity.</p> Victor Manuel Cardenas, Jazmin Moreno-Perez, Karla Cabrera-Besares, Iris F Moreno-Lara, Sabino Morales-Arias, Benito Ernesto Salvatierra-Izaba, Victor De Dios Gomez, Pedro Palermo, Jeanette Obergozo, Douglas M. Watts ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48339 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Labor force participation during COVID-19 economic crisis in Mexico: care work demands and differential recovery between men and women https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48031 <p>The COVID-19 pandemic not only has had an impact in public health field, but it has also lead to a profound social and economic crisis. Attending to the demands generated by the virus has meant an economic standstill almost everywhere in the world. Mexico wasn’t the exception and the measures implemented in the country had important consequences in the economy and the labor market, carrying to a strong reduction of employment and withdrawals from the labor force. Thus, this article looks to understand the observed differences in this process, taking a point of view which prioritizes household care demands as a factor that can explain the dissimilar behaviour by gender.&nbsp; To follow this objective a quantitative analysis is performed using data from the ECOVID-ML, through a logistic regression model. This shows that the effect of the care variables is relevant in understanding differences in labor force participation between men and women, and also confirms the lower reincorporation into the labor market of women, even though recovery has concentrated on feminized sectors.</p> Lía Carnes Borrajo, María Stephanie Valenciano ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48031 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Comparative study of cytogenetic biomonitoring in veterinary personnel occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48074 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Ionizing radiation (RI) can induce the formation of micronuclei (MN). The formation of MN is used as a biomarker of radiation-induced genetic damage. <strong>Objective</strong>: assess DNA damage resulting from occupational exposure to RI in veterinary personnel. <strong>Methodology</strong>: the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay (MNBC) was used to compare the observed frequency of MN in 40 individuals occupationally exposed to ionizing radiation with respect to a control group of 32 participants, both groups belonging to veterinary personnel. In addition, demographic, lifestyle and occupational variables that could influence the formation of MN were recorded. <strong>Results:</strong> univariate analysis did not show significant differences in the frequency of MN between the study groups (p=0.118). Using multivariate analysis, it was found that approximately 27% (adjusted R<sup>2</sup>= 0.269) of the variability in the frequency of MN can be explained by the joint influence of age, sex and the number of radiographic images performed by the participant. Age is the variable with the greatest relative importance (β = 0.504), followed by the sex of the participant (β = -0.316) and the number of X-rays performed per day (β = 0.214). <strong>Conclusions:</strong> the frequency of MN tends to increase in women, as the participant's age increases and as the number of radiographic images performed increases.</p> Fabio Andrés Chaves-Campos, Alejandra Vargas Gamboa, Vanessa Ramírez Mayorga, Patricia Mora Rodríguez, Melissa Abarca Ramírez, Luisa Valle Bourrouet ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48074 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Chronic non-communicable diseases in Argentina: Model and Forecast by sex and age https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49013 <p>Chronic Non-Communicable Diseases (NCD) are diseases that are not transmitted from person to person and that are characterized by their generally slow evolution. In Argentina, NCDs are the main cause of death and disability, only two groups of causes (cardiovascular and cancer) are responsible for half of all deaths and 27 % of years of life potentially lost (YPLL). The general objective of this work, a quantitative, cross-sectional and descriptive study, is to describe and analyze the profile by age and sex of the mortality rates due to NCD in men and women in Argentina, based on the implementation of the model for functional data (MDF) by Hyndman and Ullah (2007). This model also makes it possible to forecast the behavior of mortality rates for both sexes, taking into account the changes related to age and the trend observed over time during the period 1985-2014. The relative difference in mortality between the beginning of the study period and the forecast for the year 2025 indicates that, if the prevailing behavior in rates continues, decreases of around 50 % would be achieved for men between 30 and 50 years of age. While for women the greatest decreases (of around 20 %) would be observed between the ages of 20 and 35. These results would indicate, in a more general way, that the behavior of the mortality rates of the age groups under 70 years, whose deaths are called “premature”, is of a clear decrease for both sexes, highlighting that, in the case of men, although they have higher NCD mortality rates, this decrease is more marked.</p> Joana María del Luján Tosello, Lucia Andreozzi ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49013 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Spatial Bayesian modeling of household structure and fertility in municipalities of Mexico https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49927 <p>This paper seeks to model the effect that different patterns of household composition have on the observed levels of fertility in the municipalities of Mexico in the year 2020; it is a quantitative cross-sectional cohort research based on the application of spatial Bayesian methods. The hypothesis is that the presence of a higher percentage of family households should have an impact on higher municipal fertility rates. The methodology involves the implementation of two latent Gaussian models. One null model, which seeks to determine whether the observed fertility patterns were generated by some socio-demographic mechanism or, on the contrary, arose randomly, and two, a model with covariates whose objective is to replicate the behavior of fertility by evaluating the effect of the proportion of nuclear, extended and compound households present in municipalities. The results obtained from estimation of null model confirm the existence of a direct relationship between increase in the proportion of nuclear and extended households and the increase of municipal fertility. However, it can be concluded that the level of replacement fertility reached by Mexico in the year 2020 is the product of marked differences between municipalities; differences originated by the presence of a heterogeneous typology of households immersed in disparate geographic, social and cultural contexts.</p> Gerardo Núñez Medina ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49927 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Mortality and causes of death: a comparative study between indigenous and non-indigenous areas in Costa Rica https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49807 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>. In most countries of the American and Oceanic continents, indigenous people have worse health indicators than the rest of the population. The objective of this study is to analyze the differences in mortality and causes of death between people living in indigenous areas, and people living in the rest of Costa Rica, between 2010 and 2018. <strong>Methodology</strong>. The study population is based on the 2010 National Electoral Rolls. The Registry of the National Institute of Statistics and Censuses (INEC) allowed knowing the cause of death (ICD-10). 2,747,616 people for 23,985,602 person-years of follow-up were included. <strong>Results</strong>. No differences in mortality in men were observed between both populations. In women, mortality was slightly higher in indigenous areas. In indigenous areas, mortality was higher in people who were under 50 years of age at the beginning of the follow-up, compared to the rest of the population, in particular mortality due to Diseases of the digestive system and External causes of morbidity and mortality. Mortality was lower in indigenous areas in people over 70 years of age, particularly mortality due to Tumors and Diseases of the circulatory system. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. The results of this study do not confirm the hypothesis of systematically higher mortality in populations living in indigenous areas.</p> Romain Fantin, Cristina Barboza Solís ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49807 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Food, lifestyle and social distancing: a study in the Brazilian southeast during the COVID-19 pandemic https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49840 <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, measures of social distancing to reduce the rate of infection can influence eating habits and other lifestyle factors. This study aimed to assess the relationship between social distancing and lifestyle factors in adults in southeastern Brazil during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. <strong>Methodology:</strong> It was a cross-sectional study with 1,828 adults between 18 and 83 years of age, of both sexes, carried out through an online questionnaire; sociodemographic, food, health, and lifestyle data were collected and analyzed based on whether or not the social distancing was carried out. <strong>Results:</strong> The results showed a decrease in breakfast consumption (12.5%) and an increase in the consumption of snacks (24.5% morning snack; 12.5% afternoon snack) and snacks between meals (20.4%) during the pandemic, as well as an increase in the consumption of vegetables and legumes among people who did social distancing and in the consumption of fish and fast food among those who did not do social distancing; most participants reported weight gain during social distancing. People who were in social distancing slept more compared to those who were not in social distancing. The main cause of anxiety among those who kept social distancing were COVID-19 statistics. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The findings suggest the need for health promotion strategies adapted to the condition of confinement in circumstances such as the current pandemic.</p> Yazareni José Mercadante Urquía, Taísa Sabrina Silva Pereira, Oscar Geovanny Enriquez Martinez, Daniela Alves Silva, Marcia Cristina Teixeira Martins, Maria del Carmen Bisi Molina ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49840 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Participatory selection of children as health promoters for obesity prevention in times of COVID-19 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49640 <p><strong>Background.</strong> Childhood obesity is a major worldwide public health problem. To face this epidemic, society requires strategies developed from the structures and possibilities of the community local context and from a holistic approach. Community participation in the development of strategies is necessary to promote a healthy lifestyle.<strong>&nbsp;Objective. </strong>Select child promoters through online tools during COVID-19 pandemic using a participatory approach<strong>. Methods.</strong> Puppet theater was used as a tool to select health promoters using a Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR) methodology; five acts regarding the characteristics of a health promoter (Sympathy, Empathy, Solidarity, Responsibility) were presented to children from four elementary schools in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic lock down and the work-at-home modality implemented since March 2020 in Mexico, the strategy was developed using on-line platforms. <strong>Results.</strong> Through the CBPR practice, the classmates of four schools selected 79 students whom they considered met the characteristics to be a health promoter and then carry out a health promotion program aimed at the entire school community in a later study phase.&nbsp;<strong>Conclusions.</strong> The election participation process was adequately developed through online communication and CBPR principles, using the puppet theater tool.</p> Karla Alejandra Bon Padilla, María Isabel Ortega Vélez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49640 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Farmworkers and COVID-19: prevention and working conditions in Sonora, Mexico https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48645 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>To analyze the relationship between socio-labor conditions and health care in the face of COVID-19 among the farmworkers in two municipalities of Sonora, Mexico. <strong>Method:</strong> . Through semi-structured interviews and field observations, the care practices and health provisions implemented by the agricultural work centers were analyzed. Twenty-two interviews were conducted, 18 in the municipality of Hermosillo and 4 in San Miguel de Horcasitas. <strong>Results:</strong> Agricultural activities in Mexico did not cease and farmworkers continued their work in a diverse context of prevention measures. We found a disparity between the different productive units, which carried out protocols oriented to the care of the harvest to the detriment of human health. The means of agricultural transport lacked sufficient attention in terms of contagion prevention. The practice of payments in the localities without a sanitary protocol was evident. <strong>Conclusion:</strong> The intervention of the health authorities is necessary to homogenize the prevention protocols in the face of COVID-19. Socio-labor conditions are an obstacle to pandemic mitigation.</p> José Eduardo Calvario Parra, María del Carmen Arellano Gálvez ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48645 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Amenable mortality analysis in Mexico during the period 1998-2019 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50116 <p><strong>Background</strong>: The Mexican health system divides the population into people with and without social security. This organization generated health differences between both groups. Amenable mortality is an impact that if is studied between groups and territories it indirectly measures health inequities. <strong>Objective</strong>. Analyze the amenable mortality among Mexican population with and without social security from 1998 to 2019. <strong>Materials and methods</strong>. An ecological investigation was realized, obtaining standardized mortality rates of amenable mortality and two inequity measures for the population with and without social security, using an amenable mortality list adapted to Mexico. <strong>Results</strong>. At national level, the population with social security concentrates the greatest general, no amenable and amenable mortality. Looking at each category of amenable mortality we found that the mortality rates of Medical Services, Diabetes, Isquemic Hearth Diseases and Residual Causes were higher in social security population; while in Homicides, Acquired human Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Suicide and Intentional Injuries the opposite happens. At state level exist heterogeneity, but in 28 of 32 states the mortality rates were higher in social security population. It's the same in the ratio rates. The concentration index values reflect a little inequity between states. <strong>Conclusions</strong>. The population with social security had the greatest mortality. This doesn’t mean that an inequity exist in them, rather it reflect the influence of other variables (social determinants), and it's evidence with the concentration index.</p> Héctor García Hernández, Claudio Alberto Dávila Cervántes ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50116 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 COVID-19 in Costa Rica: longitudinal analysis of the transmission and death rates from the social inequality approach https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50200 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> this article addresses the relationship between the gross rates of transmission and the net death rates from COVID-19 -study variables-, with socioeconomic and health indicators -contrast variables- at four moments of observation during the first year of the syndemic in Costa Rica. The objectives of the research work are: a) identify the moments of observation based on the number of accumulated cases per epidemiological week; b) establish the statistical correlation between the crude rates of transmission and the contrast variables; c) establish the statistical correlation between the net death rates and the contrast variables; d) describe the development of transmission and death rates at the cantonal level, and e) socioeconomically characterize the cantons with very high values in those rates. <strong>Methodology:</strong> a study with a quantitative approach is developed through the statistical method and the application of hypothesis tests at a bivariate level, namely, Pearson and Spearman correlations. <strong>Results:</strong> the main results indicate that transmission is closely related, mostly, to socioeconomic factors -population density; Social Development Index (IDS); Human Development Index (HDI) and crime rates against property-, while deaths they are related to biological factors such as the rates of diseases -hypertension and respiratory-. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> the study demonstrates the relationship between disease and social inequalities, that is, how social inequality is reproduced in the field of health.</p> Anthony García Marín, Raúl García Fernández ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50200 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Tuberculosis in large urban conglomerates: meanings and approach practices of the teams of a network of public services in the City of Buenos Aires, Argentina https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49898 <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Tuberculosis (TB) persists as an important public health problem in Argentina with a worrying concentration in large urban centers. The objective of this study is to recover the meanings and practices of professionals from a public network of health services in a large urban conglomerate on the TB care-care process. <strong>Methodology:</strong> An exploratory study with a qualitative approach was carried out, based on semi-structured interviews with members of the health teams of a hospital and health centers of the CABA. <strong>Results:</strong> It was identified that, from the perspective of the health teams, there are different nuances of meaning about the complexity of the TB approach. These varied according to the characteristics of the services in which they were inserted and of the people with TB. Strategies for dealing with complex cases were described: having interdisciplinary teams, acting together with other health effectors and dialoguing with civil society organizations under a territorial approach. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> The control of the TB problem in large urban conglomerates presents extensive challenges. From the perspective of health teams, complex situations are observed that require the development of certain strategies to address them. These allow the adaptation of interventions to provide an integrated response.</p> Maria Jimena Aranda, Rocio Nahir Barrios, Andres Martin Pereira, Maria Florencia Mena, Maria Alexandra Longordo, Maria Belen Herrero ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49898 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Socioeconomic factors linked to postponement of first union in two cohorts of mexican women https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49453 <p><strong>Objective</strong>: to analyze if social origin and certain sociodemographic characteristics such as: education level, having a job and being a mother, influence in two cohorts of women in Mexico to postpone their entry into their first union. <strong>Data source:</strong> Retrospective Demographic Survey of 2017. <strong>Methodology:</strong> descriptive and multivariate event history techniques were used. In multivariate analysis, two event history models were adjusted, one for women from the oldest cohort and one for the youngest. <strong>Results:</strong> Women born between 1978 and 1987 delayed their calendar compared to those born between 1962 and 1967. The proportion of occurrences of the first union at age 30 has changed according to the birth cohort, with younger women showing lower percentages of a first marriage at this age. Women from the younger cohort who are highly educated do not have children and are from a higher stratum, they are less likely to join. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> the calendar of the union in Mexico is heterogeneous and is accentuated by the new generations and the socioeconomic stratum to which they belong, in addition to factors such as educational level and pre-union fertility.</p> Anabel López Chávez, Elsa Ortiz Ávila ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/49453 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Types and circumstances of marital union in the occurrence of physical intimate partner violence in Chiapas, Mexico, 2016 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50254 <p>Violence against women in heterosexual couples is not only a very complex issue, but also a public health problem. The work contributes to the study not only in the type of conjugal union (cohabitation and marriage) but also taking into account the circumstances in which the union occurs, to explain both in indigenous and non-indigenous women their relationship with the magnitude and severity of the expressions of physical violence against women in Chiapas. The study was conducted through a quantitative approach taking as a basis data from the National Survey on the Dynamics of Household Relationships 2016 (ENDIREH); 2604 women aged 15 to 49 years, currently in union, indigenous and mestizo were included. The results show that free union is more frequent in indigenous women and that this type of union is significantly associated with a higher probability of occurrence of physical violence in its different expressions. Additionally, the circumstances in which the union is established provide evidence of differences in the frequency of physical violence in them, particularly when women are forced to join. The social disadvantage of women underlies the type and circumstances in which the union occurs, highlighting the participation or not of women in the decision to join and the normative aspects that govern unions in Chiapas, Mexico. Results are discussed in light of reproductive change and male involvement in the establishment of the union as elements underlying both cohabitation or marriage and intimate partner violence.</p> Ana Laura Suárez Muñoz, Dominga Austreberta Nazar Beutelspacher, Ernesto Benito Salvatierra-Izaba, Georgina Sánchez Ramírez, Arturo Torres Dosal ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50254 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Barriers according to health care access dimensions and cervical cancer in Costa Rica: a qualitative systematic review https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48983 <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: cervical cancer is responsible for 7% of deaths from some type of cancer in women in the world. In Costa Rica, an average of 320 cases is diagnosed and 140 women die from this disease each year. &nbsp;<strong>Objective:</strong> identify barriers to timely detection and treatment of cervical cancer according to healthcare access dimensions in Costa Rica. <strong>Methodology</strong>: a qualitative systematic review of literature was carried out between May and September 2021. Articles using quantitative, qualitative or both methods published between January 2010 to June 2021 from a primary or secondary source that identified barriers to healthcare access from general population, users or health personnel in Costa Rica were analyzed. <strong>Results</strong>: 9 scientific articles were selected. The 5 dimensions and 26 barriers of the Tanahashi model were identified: 12 corresponded to the availability, 5 to accessibility, 3 to acceptability, 2 to contact coverage and 4 to effective coverage. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> the barriers to accessing medical care are multiple and are present in all the dimensions described in the Tanahashi model. The findings of this study highlight the importance of addressing barriers in all dimensions. Addressing some access barriers can be complex. However, other variables are relatively simple to address at the system, policy, or practice level.</p> Ana Leonor Rivera Chavarría, Alejandro Calderón- Céspedes ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/48983 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Social vulnerability factors in immigrant Nicaraguan impoverished population in Costa Rica, 2019 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50414 <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Nicaraguan immigrant population is the most representative in Costa Rica, and when a comparison is established, it is observed that there are higher levels of poverty in migrant households compared to those of the native population, in such a way that the purpose of this investigation is to know what factors produce vulnerability in these dwellings. <strong>Methodology:</strong> This is a quantitative approach study using the ENAHO 2019 database used to measure poverty, first, in a descriptive scope through characterizations of contingencies between the population of Nicaraguan and autochthonous origin and later, in an explanatory one using regression logistic models, to find significance and reinforce the findings. <strong>Results:</strong> There are factors that put the impoverished Nicaraguan immigrant population in serious situations of vulnerability, in which factors such as labor exploitation coupled with the lack of access to health insurance were seen. In other words, these would be the main factors of social vulnerability. <strong>Conclusions:</strong> It was evidenced that the Nicaraguan immigrant population has shortcomings in better working conditions and access to health insurance, in addition it is subjected to labor marginality, in fact this function as vulnerability factors, and that they serve to obtain and exploitation of cheap labor in the capitalist dynamics of people in households headed by Nicaraguan immigrants.</p> Jason Hernandez Murillo ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50414 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600 Ethical-methodological notes for research in conflict territories: learning's of a bachelor's thesis in Sociology https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50422 <p>This essay offers a series of methodological reflections for research in conflict contexts. The text takes as a reference the experience of a sociology thesis from the University of Costa Rica developed together with the recovery movement of the Indigenous Territory of Salitre, located in the southern region of Costa Rica. The essay focuses on the ethical and methodological implications of scientific research in a territory marked by serious territorial disputes. An outline of the context in which the research was developed and some notes on the work of sociology in the face of socio-territorial conflicts are also presented.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Jimmy Jesus Vargas Alvarado ##submission.copyrightStatement## https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0 https://www.revistas.ucr.ac.cr/index.php/psm/article/view/50422 Fri, 01 Jul 2022 00:00:00 -0600